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The Past as Prologue: The Development of the World Opiate Market and the Rise of the International Control Regime

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter reviews the historical development of the world opiate market, including the international policy regime that surrounds it. It explores the period of growth of the opiate market in the ... More


Supply control

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter is about supply control approaches to drug problems, a set of interventions targeting the production, distribution, and sale of illicit psychoactive substances. It begins by explaining ... More


Drug policy and control at the international level

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the global expansion of psychoactive substance use. It then discusses current international drug control treaties, the implementation of the treaties, the ... More


Synthesis of Findings and Lessons for Policy Making

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0011
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the possibility of reducing opiate and heroin production. The result reveals that drug control policy, especially governments' enforcement of ... More


Prescription regimes and other measures to control misuse of psychopharmaceuticals

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines how well prescription regimes perform their role of allowing psychoactive substances to be consumed for approved, i.e., medical, purposes, while preventing their use for ... More


Criminalization and decriminalization of drug use or possession

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews policies designed to deter drug use, through criminal sanctions on the possession and use of psychoactive substances. It shows that enforcement can reduce demand via deterrence, ... More


The variety of national drug policies

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes some of the observed policy variation and its sources, so that readers can better understand their own country's choices and how they are framed. It begins by describing the ... More


The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963-1981

David F. Musto and Pamela Korsmeyer

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300090369
eISBN:
9780300137842
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300090369.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Between 1960 and 1980 various administrations attempted to deal with a rising tide of illicit drug use that was unprecedented in U.S. history. This book provides a close look at the politics and ... More


The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Franklin E. Zimring

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

The 40% drop in crime that occurred across the U.S. from 1991 to 2000 largely remains an unsolved mystery. Even more puzzling then is the crime rate drop in New York City, which lasted twice as long ... More


The First Nixon Administration: Early Approaches to Drug Policy

David F. Musto and Pamela Korsmeyer

in The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963-1981

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300090369
eISBN:
9780300137842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300090369.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter turns to American drug use during Richard M. Nixon's first years as President. It illustrates the increasing problem through statistics, identifies the five measures that Nixon promised ... More


The Johnson Administration: Drug Abuse as a Policy Issue

David F. Musto and Pamela Korsmeyer

in The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963-1981

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300090369
eISBN:
9780300137842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300090369.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter discusses drug use during President Lyndon Johnson's term. It notes that by the end of Johnson's presidency, several measures that would soon form a response to drug use were already in ... More


Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation against Illicit Trade

Asif Efrat

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199760305
eISBN:
9780199950010
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199760305.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

From human trafficking to smuggling small arms to looting antiquities, illicit trade poses significant threats to international order. So why is it difficult to establish international cooperation ... More


The Second Nixon Administration: Drug Abuse Control

David F. Musto and Pamela Korsmeyer

in The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963-1981

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300090369
eISBN:
9780300137842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300090369.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter rounds up the discussion of Richard M. Nixon's role in illicit drug use in the United States. It can be noted that Nixon was re-elected partly due to his administration's approach to law ... More


“The Drug Arsenal of the Civilized World”: WWII and the Origins of US-Led International Drug Control

Suzanna Reiss

in We Sell Drugs: The Alchemy of US Empire

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520280779
eISBN:
9780520959026
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520280779.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes the international pharmaceutical industry’s transformation during World War II as a result of U.S. economic warfare initiatives in Latin America. Provisioning drugs and ... More


Post-discharge Reintegration and Surveillance

Vincent Shing Cheng

in Hypocrisy: The Tales and Realities of Drug Detainees in China

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9789888455683
eISBN:
9789888455645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888455683.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter frames drug detainees’ experience in a more general context of the policing of ‘targeted populations’. In China, all released prisoners, including those discussed in this study, are ... More


New Life in the Assisted-Death Debate: Scheduled Drugs versus NuTech

Margaret Pabst Battin

in Ending Life: Ethics and the Way We Die

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195140279
eISBN:
9780199850280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140279.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In the years since Dr. Jack Kevorkian went to jail, public involvement with the issues of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia may seem to have subsided in the United States. ... More


Colonial and Global Engagements: Afghan Opium on the Periphery of the Global Drug Market

James Tharin Bradford

in Poppies, Politics, and Power: Afghanistan and the Global History of Drugs and Diplomacy

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781501738333
eISBN:
9781501738340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501738333.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter explores how Afghan drugs expanded into British India during the later half of the 19th century. By analyzing two Afghan rulers, Abdur Rahman Khan and Amanullah Khan, this chapter ... More


“Resources for Freedom”: American Drug Commodities in the Postwar World

Suzanna Reiss

in We Sell Drugs: The Alchemy of US Empire

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520280779
eISBN:
9780520959026
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520280779.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes the convergence of policing and profitmaking as the state demobilized wartime pharmaceutical surpluses and devised a drug-control regime that remobilized them for defense. ... More


Hypocrisy: The Tales and Realities of Drug Detainees in China

Vincent Shing Cheng

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9789888455683
eISBN:
9789888455645
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888455683.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

Although the official propaganda surrounding the drug detainees in China is that of helping, educating, and saving them from their drug habits and the drug dealers who lure them into drug abuse, it ... More


Initiation Ceremony in Drug Detention

Vincent Shing Cheng

in Hypocrisy: The Tales and Realities of Drug Detainees in China

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9789888455683
eISBN:
9789888455645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888455683.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter further examines former prisoners’ experiences in the early phase of their imprisonment. With the example of the prison culture of ‘initiation ceremonies’, it argues that prison ... More


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