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From Causal Reductionism to Self‐Directed Systems

Nancey Murphy and Warren S. Brown

in Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199215393
eISBN:
9780191707025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215393.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter criticizes overly-simple accounts of causal processes, particularly atomist-reductionism-determinism. Alternatively, a case is made for considering downward causation (the effect of the ... More


Emergence and Downward Causation

Cynthia Macdonald and Graham Macdonald

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The principal charge against any emergentist account of the nature of mind is that it leads to incoherence because it is committed to ‘downward’ causation, and it is this charge that this chapter ... More


Making Sense of Emergence

Jaegwon Kim

in Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

“Making Sense of Emergence” is a survey‐analysis‐critique of the concept of emergence and the doctrines associated with emergentism, focusing on the works of British emergentists, Samuel Alexander, ... More


Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will

Nancey Murphy and Warren S. Brown

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199215393
eISBN:
9780191707025
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215393.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

If humans are purely physical, and the brain does the work formerly assigned to the mind or soul, then how can it fail to be the case that our thoughts and actions are determined by the laws of ... More


Emergence vs. Reduction in Chemistry

Robin Findlay Hendry

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

Let strict physicalism be any philosophical account of the ontological relationship between the subject matter of physics and other disciplines that is committed to the causal completeness of the ... More


Transformation

Jonardon Ganeri

in The Self: Naturalism, Consciousness, and the First-Person Stance

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199652365
eISBN:
9780191740718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652365.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, History of Philosophy

This chapter derives a new theory of emergence through discussion of Cārvāka. Emergence through “transformation” (pariṇāma) is the idea that the emergence of mental states occurs only within a ... More


The Physics of Downward Causation

Paul C. W. Davies

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

By tradition, physics is a strongly reductionist science. The problem of downward causation from the physicist's point of view is: How can wholes act causatively on parts if all interactions are ... More


Agent Causation and Control

Randolph Clarke

in Libertarian Accounts of Free Will

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195159875
eISBN:
9780199835010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515987X.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Agent-causal accounts aim to secure greater control than can be secured by any event-causal libertarian account. Assuming that all it requires is possible, an integrated agent-causal view succeeds at ... More


Emergence and Mental Causation

Nancey Murphy

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter deals with the question of how emergent mental events or properties can have ‘downward’ causal efficacy without violating the causal closure of the physical world. It claims that ... More


Introduction: New Approaches to Knotty Old Problems

Nancey Murphy and Warren S. Brown

in Did My Neurons Make Me Do It?: Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199215393
eISBN:
9780191707025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215393.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The problem that is addressed by this book is given in the form of the question: ‘If humans are physical systems, and if it is their brains that allow them to think, how can it not be the case that ... More


Emergence: Core Ideas and Issues

Jaegwon Kim

in Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

“Emergence: Core Ideas and Issues” explores the fundamental ideas that have been driving the idea of emergence and the movement of emergentism. Two conditions are generally, though not universally, ... More


Conceptual Foundations of Emergence Theory

Philip Clayton

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

The discussion of emergence has grown out of the successes and failures of the scientific quest for reduction. Emergence theories presuppose that the project of complete explanatory reduction — ... More


Are agent-causal powers reducible to microproperties?

Erasmus Mayr

in Understanding Human Agency

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199606214
eISBN:
9780191731631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606214.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Even if powers are not reducible to non-power properties, still a human agent's abilities to act might be reducible to microproperties, which would leave the agent himself devoid of a truly causal ... More


Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Jaegwon Kim

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book is a collection of 14 essays; 11 of these have been previously published and three are new. All but one of them have been written since 1993 when my essay collection Supervenience and Mind ... More


Emergence

Matthew Croasmun

in The Emergence of Sin: The Cosmic Tyrant in Romans

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190277987
eISBN:
9780190278007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190277987.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, Theology

Emergence theory in philosophy of science is introduced, first in modest terms of the emergent properties exhibited by complex wholes that are not exhibited by their constituent parts. Then, ... More


Downward Causation and Autonomy in Weak Emergence

Mark A. Bedau

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses and attempts to resolve the recurrent philosophical problem that is emergence. Emergent phenomena seem metaphysically objectionable, and some of these objections can be traced ... More


Emergence in Social Evolution: A Great Ape Example

Barbara Smuts

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter uses the evolution of bonobo society, and specifically how it came to develop some radical differences from chimpanzee society, to illustrate the role of emergence in social evolution. ... More


It is not Possible to Reduce Biological Explanations to Explanations in Chemistry and/or Physics 1

John Dupré

in Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691982
eISBN:
9780191738111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691982.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that the traditional reductionist notion that complex systems, such as those found in biology, can be fully understood from a sufficiently detailed knowledge of their constituents ... More


Natural Reality

Lynne Rudder Baker

in Naturalism and the First-Person Perspective

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199914722
eISBN:
9780199347483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199914722.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Chapter 10 sets out a seriously nonreductive alternative to scientific naturalism: near-naturalism. Near-naturalism includes an account of ontological levels in terms of constitution of ... More


How Properties Emerge

Paul Humphreys

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores an obscure argument of contemporary philosophy believed to bring about serious problems for mental causation. The “exclusion argument,” as it is commonly referred to, presents ... More


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