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Reversible Proportional Disease Processes: Effects of Ammonia and Ozone on Respiratory Symptoms

Thomas J. Smith and David Kriebel

in A Biologic Approach to Environmental Assessment and Epidemiology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195141566
eISBN:
9780199872145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141566.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter illustrates the modeling of reversible proportional disease processes using two examples. It first continues to use the simple case of ammonia leading to eye irritation that was ... More


Lesson #3: Ethics for Experts

Kevin C. Elliott

in Is a Little Pollution Good for You?: Incorporating Societal Values in Environmental Research

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199755622
eISBN:
9780199827121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755622.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that, if scientists are to avoid railroading their own values into individual and societal decision‐making processes, they need to follow an ethics of expertise (EOE) when ... More


Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Human Development

Claire D. Coles

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of how differences in methodologies have contributed to disagreements in the literature and among the public and many professionals about the effects of ... More


Assessing Health Risks in Populations

T. Kue Young

in Population Health: Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195158540
eISBN:
9780199864379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195158540.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter defines risk and reviews the concepts of causation from Aristotle, Hume, Mill, Koch, and Bradford Hill to Rothman; the use of ratio and difference measures in quantifying association; ... More


Current Issues in Examining Dose-Response Relationships Between Physical Activity and Health Outcomes

I-Min Lee

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter aims to stimulate epidemiologic research on dose-response relationships in physical activity. It discusses issues pertinent to assessing dose-response relationships between physical ... More


Risk Assessment

Tamar Lasky

in Epidemiologic Principles and Food Safety

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195172638
eISBN:
9780199865727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172638.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Food safety risk assessment provides the link by which scientific knowledge can inform regulatory decisions and reduce food-borne risks. This chapter describes methods for risk assessment, hazard ... More


Physical Activity and Cancer: The Evidence, The Issues, and the Challenges

Barbara Sternfeld and I-Min Lee

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews data on the associations between physical activity and the development of various site-specific cancers. The observed associations will be considered in terms of generally ... More


Risk Evaluation of Mercury Pollution

Joanna Burger and Michael Gochfeld

in Mercury in the Environment: Pattern and Process

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271630
eISBN:
9780520951396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271630.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Risk assessment is a method of evaluating harm from a stressor, such as mercury. Human risk assessment involves hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk ... More


the Threat of Bioweapons

Jeanne Guillemin

in Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520222045
eISBN:
9780520927100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520222045.003.0024
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter is concerned with the threat of bioweapons. First, it looks at the final touches the research team made on the maps of the victims' daytime locations and the locations of the six ... More


Quantitative assessment

John Kemm

in Health Impact Assessment: Past Achievement, Current Understanding, and Future Progress

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199656011
eISBN:
9780191748028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656011.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter explores quantitative methods of assessing impacts in HIA. It suggests causal diagrams should be used as a structure for assessment. Dose response curves and exposure estimates can then ... More


Bad Company: The Business of Toxicity

Mark A. Griep and Marjorie L. Mikasen

in ReAction!: Chemistry in the Movies

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195326925
eISBN:
9780197562536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195326925.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

In the movies, chemical companies maximize profits by poisoning their customers, workers, neighbors, and the environment, or they terrorize or outright kill the heroic ... More


Cannabis Use as a Component Cause of Schizophrenia

Paola Casadio, Marta Di Forti, and Robin M. Murray

in The Origins of Schizophrenia

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231151245
eISBN:
9780231521925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231151245.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter studies how the use of cannabis may increase the risk of schizophrenia. Cannabis use is considered as one of the component causes in the development of psychosis. Epidemiologic studies ... More


Toxicology

Robert Laumbach and Michael Gochfeld

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the basic principles of toxicology and their application to occupational and environmental health. Topics covered include pathways that toxic substances may take from sources ... More


Flexible Bayesian modelling for clustered categorical responses in developmental toxicology

Kottas Athanasios and Fronczyk Kassandra

in Bayesian Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695607
eISBN:
9780191744167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695607.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Developmental toxicity studies investigate birth defects caused by toxic chemicals. This chapter develops a Bayesian nonparametric modelling approach for risk assessment in developmental toxicity ... More


Mixtures and Low Doses: The Complexity of Risk Assessment

Barbara Demeneix

in Losing Our Minds: Effects of Chemical Pollution on the Intellectual Capacity and Mental Health of Future Generations

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199917518
eISBN:
9780190232382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917518.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Behavioural Neuroendocrinology

The current EPA Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) inventory lists over 84,000 chemicals manufactured or imported into the United States in quantities above 10 tons. This list does not include ... More


Defining Endocrine Disruption

Heather B. Patisaul and Scott M. Belcher

in Endocrine Disruptors, Brain, and Behavior

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780199935734
eISBN:
9780190678524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199935734.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Behavioural Neuroendocrinology

Chapter 2 reviews the origin of the concept of endocrine disruption and presents a comprehensive treatment of the changing and often competing definitions of endocrine disruptors. The factors ... More


Risk Assessment and Chemical Regulatory Policy in the United States and Abroad

Heather B. Patisaul and Scott M. Belcher

in Endocrine Disruptors, Brain, and Behavior

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780199935734
eISBN:
9780190678524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199935734.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Behavioural Neuroendocrinology

This chapter presents an overview of the risk assessment process with an in-depth description of the related terminology. Critical study features that should be included to maximize utility of data ... More


Mindfulness as Medicine

Paul Verhaeghen

in Presence: How Mindfulness and Meditation Shape Your Brain, Mind, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199395606
eISBN:
9780190674229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199395606.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the effects of mindfulness training on psychological symptoms and syndromes in clinical populations and how to measure these. It reviews effects on depression, anxiety, ... More


Causal Thinking in Developmental Disorders

E. Jane Costello and Adrian Angold

in Causality and Psychopathology: Finding the Determinants of Disorders and their Cures

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199754649
eISBN:
9780197565650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199754649.003.0017
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

In this chapter we (1) lay out a definition of development as it relates to psychopathology; (2) make the case that nearly all psychiatric disorders are ‘‘developmental’’; and (3) examine, with ... More


Conjectures and Conflict: A Thought Experiment in Physics

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199396412
eISBN:
9780199396436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396412.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter evaluates the heuristic strategy of using a thought experiment in physics to develop hypotheses in physics—about the shape of the radiation dose-response curve. It shows that deductively ... More


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