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 Time Course of Executive Processes: Data from the Event‐Related Optical Signal

Gabriele Gratton, Kathy A. Low, and Monica Fabiani

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter discusses a series of experiments in which a pre‐cue signals which of several dimensions of an upcoming stimulus is relevant on a particular trial. The event‐related optical signal is ... More


Einstein: 2005 Master-Mind Lecture

John Stachel

in Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 151, 2006 Lectures

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264249
eISBN:
9780191734045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264249.003.0015
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This lecture discusses the nature of creativity; creativity is defined in terms of the interaction between the individual and the field of experts in a certain domain. This interaction eventually ... More


Detecting, Classifying, and Remediating: Children’s Explicit and Implicit Misconceptions about Experimental Design

Stephanie A. Siler and David Klahr

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Students come to science classes with preconceptions about the natural world and ways to explore that world to learn more about it. Students' prior beliefs may distort their understanding of how to ... More


Domain-Specific Reasoning: Social Contracts and Cheating Detection

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter first introduces the challenge of domain specificity and then applies a domain-specific theory for a specific adaptive problem, social exchange, to a reasoning task that has puzzled ... More


A Grand Strategy

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Can we validate domain-specific methods of research for natural theology? All these methods have turned out to be unreliable, as is illustrated by the example of prayer (Mantra II, STEP). This fact ... More


Reframing Psychological Models of Moral Development

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0035
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explains how psychological accounts of the acquisition of morality can be reframed within an evolutionary framework in ways that integrate their insights and redress their limitations. ... More


Reconsidering advice and advisory systems

Kate Crowley, Jenny Stewart, Adrian Kay, and Brian W. Head

in Reconsidering Policy: Complexity, Governance and the State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781447333111
eISBN:
9781447333159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447333111.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Policy advice and policy advisory systems tend to be underplayed or neglected in policymaking literature despite robust policy advisory research efforts, and concerns with the character and dynamics ... More


Beliefs about purpose: on the origins of teleological thought

Deborah Kelemen

in The Descent of Mind: Psychological Perspectives on Hominid Evolution

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192632593
eISBN:
9780191670497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192632593.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines and speculates on some possible answers to questions on the nature of the teleological stance and why people are driven to think about the purpose of objects. It lays out some ... More


Intention as psychological cause

David Premack and Ann James Premack

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a domain-specific theory of human social competence according to which humans interpret self-propelled objects that pursue goals as having intentions. These intentional objects ... More


Causal constraints on categories and categorical constraints on biological reasoning across cultures

Scott Atran

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses aspects of domain-specific thinking, including categorization and causal inferencing from conceptual categories, within and across cultures. It focuses on the structure of ... More


Professional discourse communities

Martin Solly

in The Stylistics of Professional Discourse

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780748691692
eISBN:
9781474418546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748691692.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

After briefly introducing the concepts of sociolinguistics and language ecology, this chapter looks at the nature of speech communities and communities of practice, especially professional ... More


Phonetic Transcription in Relation to Instrumental and Other Records

Barry Heselwood

in Phonetic Transcription in Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780748640737
eISBN:
9780748695195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748640737.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Phonetics / Phonology

Chapter 6 examines the different kinds of relationships which may obtain between a transcription and an instrumental record of speech such as a spectrogram or palatogram. A transcription can be ... More


Syntax as an Adaptation to the Learner

Kirby Simon, H. Christiansen Morten, and Chater Nick

in Biological Foundations and Origin of Syntax

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013567
eISBN:
9780262258586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013567.003.0015
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter explores the implications of an evolutionary approach for the notion that human language syntax can be explained by significantly constraining domain-specific linguistic nativism. It ... More


Learning in Core and Noncore Domains

Rochel Gelman

in Cognitive Biology: Evolutionary and Developmental Perspectives on Mind, Brain, and Behavior

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012935
eISBN:
9780262255264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012935.003.0222
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on domain-specific approaches to learning. It discusses the notion of a domain, core and noncore domains, structure mapping, and the domains of animate and inanimate causality. ... More


Learning and Teaching

Rebecca Treiman and Brett Kessler

in How Children Learn to Write Words

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199907977
eISBN:
9780190228422
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199907977.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Writing having developed relatively recently in human history, people have not evolved specific learning mechanisms in order to deal with it. They use the same domain-general learning mechanisms that ... More


Sticks, Stones, and the Origins of Sapience

Philip J. Barnard

in Squeezing Minds From Stones: Cognitive Archaeology and the Evolution of the Human Mind

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190854614
eISBN:
9780190854645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190854614.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explores the conjecture that tool use helped lay the foundations of key properties of modern minds: propositional meaning; wisdom and intuitions about meanings with their ineffable ... More


Affix Order and the Structure of the Slavic Word

Stela Manova

in Affix Ordering Across Languages and Frameworks

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780190210434
eISBN:
9780190210458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210434.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter investigates the structure of the Slavic word with data from Bulgarian, Russian, and Polish. Affix order is analyzed in terms of two-affix combinations, and it is argued that with ... More


Introduction

Martin Peterson

in The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190652265
eISBN:
9780190652296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190652265.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The aim of this chapter is to introduce five moral principles that are necessary and jointly sufficient for analyzing ethical issues related to new and existing technologies. The five principles are ... More


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