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How to Simplify Complex Electoral Systems

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Resistance to simplifying a complex electoral system is at its least when the existing number and size of parties are not altered. The existing effective number of parties is most likely to be ... More


Electoral Systems—Simple and Complex

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

To allocate seats to candidates or parties, even a simple electoral system must specify at least the following: the total number of seats in the assembly (assembly size); the number of seats ... More


Openness to Small Parties: The Micro‐Mega Rule and the Seat Product

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The micro-mega rule says that for representation of small parties, it helps to have large assembly sizes, large district magnitudes, and large quotas or large gaps between divisors in seat allocation ... More


The Number of Seat‐Winning Parties and the Largest Seat Share

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The quantity to watch is the ‘seat product’ — the product of the assembly size and district magnitude. The number of parties represented in the assembly is approximately the fourth root of the seat ... More


Introduction to Electoral Systems

Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter establishes the importance of the electoral system as the central political institution in representative democracy. It discusses the dimensions of electoral systems, such as district ... More


Thresholds of Representation and the Number of Pertinent Electoral Parties

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The nationwide threshold of minimal representation is the average vote share needed to win one seat in the assembly. It is close to 38% divided by the square root of the seat product (assembly size ... More


The Duvergerian Agenda

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Starting with the characteristics of the electoral systems, the ‘Duvergerian agenda’ aims at predicting the average seat and vote share distributions of parties, the effective number of parties, and ... More


Electoral Systems: Types, Patterns, Trends

Arend Lijphart

in Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter discusses the dimensions of the seventy electoral systems used in twenty-four countries that hold democratic and parliamentary elections. These dimensions are the district magnitude or ... More


Descriptive Representation: Electing Women in Latin America

Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer

in Political Power and Women’s Representation in Latin America

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199731954
eISBN:
9780199866571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731954.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Why do more women get elected to Latin American legislatures today than 30 years ago and why are more women elected in some countries than others? This chapter examines how formal representation ... More


Chile: The Unexpected (and Expected) Consequences of Electoral Engineering

Peter M. Siavelis

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Chile’s binomial open-list PR system was selected by the Pinochet regime as the most likely to optimise the parliamentary strength of the authoritarian right given its level of electoral support. The ... More


Seat Shares of All Parties and the Effective Number of Parties

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

As with Chapter 8, the ‘seat product’ is the important quantity to watch. The effective number of parties represented in the assembly is approximately the sixth root of the seat product. The average ... More


Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Rein Taagepera

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

For a given electoral system, what average number and size distribution of parties can we expect? This book makes specific predictions that agree with world averages. The basic factors are assembly ... More


The Mean Duration of Cabinets

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Again the quantity to watch is the ‘seat product’. The inverse square law of cabinet durations says that the mean cabinet duration in a country is approximately forty-two years divided by the square ... More


The Institutional Impact on Votes and Deviation from PR

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Using nothing but the product of assembly size and district magnitude, a quantitatively predictive logical model allows us to estimate the average effective number of parties based on votes. Average ... More


The institutional environment

Elisabeth Carter

in The Extreme Right in Western Europe: Success or Failure?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719070488
eISBN:
9781781701966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719070488.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter deals with the effects of contextual factors and explores the influence of electoral institutions on the right-wing extremist party vote. The district magnitude of an electoral system ... More


Political Institutions and Electoral Coalitions

Csaba Nikolenyi

in Institutional Design and Party Government in Post-Communist Europe

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199675302
eISBN:
9780191755323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199675302.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter analyzes the impact of the institutional features on the formation and size of electoral coalitions in the ten states. Its central finding is that the most favorable institutional ... More


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