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Canada: Sticking to First‐Past‐the‐Post, for the Time Being

Louis Massicotte

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Canada has employed the single-member plurality electoral system at all elections to the national parliament and for most elections to provincial legislatures. In recent years, criticism of this ... More


France: Stacking the Deck

Robert Elgie

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

France has experienced considerable electoral system change, often for partisan motives, but has invariably returned to the two-round system (also known as the double ballot system) in single-member ... More


The United Kingdom: Plurality Rule Under Siege

Paul Mitchell

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

‘Times they are a-changing . . .’ is at the source of the Westminster model. Or are they? Electoral reformers are still trying to replace Britain’s single-member plurality electoral system with some ... More


Cross‐Country Comparisons: Legislative and Executive Inclusion

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

A comparative analysis is given of both actual and simulated election results of the five country case studies (from Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) presented in the book, along ... More


Strategic Defection Across Elections, Parties, and Voters *

André Blais and Thomas Gschwend

in Citizens, Context, and Choice: How Context Shapes Citizens' Electoral Choices

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199599233
eISBN:
9780191595790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599233.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the propensity to strategically defect from one's preferred party. The study uses CSES module 2 and covers twenty-five democratic lower house elections. This chapter finds that ... More


Disproportionality, Multipartism, and Majority Victories

Arend Lijphart

in Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter discusses the main political consequences of an electoral system. These are the effects of the electoral system on the proportionality and disproportionality of the electoral outcomes ... More


Bivariate and Multivariate Analyses

Arend Lijphart

in Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter discusses the result of the bivariate and multivariate analyses of the seventy electoral systems used in major democratic parliamentary elections in different countries. It explains the ... More


Four Other Potential Explanations

Arend Lijphart

in Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the influence of electoral system variables on disproportionality and various party system characteristics using comparable-case, cross-tabulation and regression analyses. These ... More


Electoral Engineering: Limits and Possibilities

Arend Lijphart

in Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198273479
eISBN:
9780191684050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter discusses the practical significance of the analyses of electoral systems for electoral engineering. The findings of the study reveal that the links between the electoral system and the ... More


Proportionality Principles in American Law: Controlling Excessive Government Actions

E. Thomas Sullivan and Richard S. Frase

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195324938
eISBN:
9780199869411
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324938.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Explicit and implicit proportionality principles have been applied in many legal contexts and formulations, but they all embody the fundamental value that government and private actions should not be ... More


The Real School Safety Problem: The Long-Term Consequences of Harsh School Punishment

Aaron Kupchik

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780520284197
eISBN:
9780520959842
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520284197.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Education

Since the 1990s, K-12 schools across the U.S. have changed in important ways in an effort to maintain safe schools. They have added police officers, surveillance cameras, zero tolerance policies, and ... More


The Child Welfare System as Context

Wendy B. Smith

in Youth Leaving Foster Care: A Developmental, Relationship-Based Approach to Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195375596
eISBN:
9780199893355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375596.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

Chapter 1 introduces the child welfare system and provides basic understanding of the policy context and foster care itself. The chapter presents a brief history of child welfare in the US, ... More


Policy Implications and Directions for Future Research

Wendy B. Smith

in Youth Leaving Foster Care: A Developmental, Relationship-Based Approach to Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195375596
eISBN:
9780199893355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375596.003.0013
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

Chapter 13 is divided between policy and research. The policy section discusses agenda-setting and the social construction of the “problem” of youth leaving care. Policy issues affecting children ... More


The Problem of Disproportionate Racial Impact

Richard S. Frase

in Just Sentencing: Principles and Procedures for a Workable System

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199757862
eISBN:
9780199979547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757862.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter addresses the persistent problem of racial disproportionality in prison and jail populations. The chapter examines the apparent causes of this problem, within and outside the criminal ... More


Winning the Future? Redistricting and Partisan Bias

Nicholas R. Seabrook

in Drawing the Lines: Constraints on Partisan Gerrymandering in U.S. Politics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501705311
eISBN:
9781501707797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501705311.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter examines the extent to which partisan redistricting creates long-term distortions in congressional elections compared to other types of redistricting. The Supreme Court's failure so far ... More


Extending Inequality

Aaron Kupchik

in The Real School Safety Problem: The Long-Term Consequences of Harsh School Punishment

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780520284197
eISBN:
9780520959842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520284197.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Education

Chapter 3 focuses on how current school security and punishment practices actually increase inequality, particularly racial inequality. It describes the body of evidence showing that youth of color, ... More


Output-oriented Legitimacy: Individual- and System-level Influences on Democracy Satisfaction

David Sanders, Harold Clarke, Marianne Stewart, and Paul Whiteley

in Elections and Democracy: Representation and Accountability

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780198716334
eISBN:
9780191784934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716334.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The chapter shows that the individual calculus of democratic satisfaction operates remarkably evenly across a range of different institutional contexts, with assessments of government performance ... More


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