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The Uses of the Intelligence Gathered

Paul Maddrell

in Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945-1961

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199267507
eISBN:
9780191708404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267507.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the strategies employed by the West in using the information that they acquired. It discusses that fear of wire was instigated by the intelligence of a huge Soviet arms ... More


At the Sign of St Anne: Printing the Secret History

Alastair Bellany and Thomas Cogswell

in The Murder of King James I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300214963
eISBN:
9780300217827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300214963.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter presents the hitherto untold history of the making of George Eglisham's book The Forerunner of Revenge. It follows Eglisham from London to Brussels, from the fringes of the English court ... More


Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This book examines the shape, composition, and practices of the United States political media landscape. It explores the roots of the current epistemic crisis in political communication with a focus ... More


Semantic information and the veridicality thesis

Luciano Floridi

in The Philosophy of Information

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199232383
eISBN:
9780191594809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232383.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The chapter analyses semantic information as well-formed, meaningful and truthful data. After a brief introduction, the General Definition of semantic Information (GDI) is criticized for providing ... More


The Lands in Between: The New Politics of Russia's Hybrid War

Mitchell A. Orenstein

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190936143
eISBN:
9780190936846
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936143.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, Russian Politics

Russia’s hybrid war on the West has begun to afflict Western politics in ways that are remarkably similar to its effects on the “lands in between,” small, vulnerable countries in Europe situated in ... More


The Origins of Denial

Michael E. Mann

in The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152556
eISBN:
9780231526388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152556.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter traces the origins of climate change denial. In the 1990s, as the scientific evidence for human-caused climate change grew stronger and calls for action to curtail greenhouse gas ... More


When You Get Your Picture on the Cover of …

Michael E. Mann

in The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152556
eISBN:
9780231526388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152556.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

In this chapter, the author comments on the appearance of seventeen climate change deniers on the cover of Rolling Stone in January 2010—what the magazine calls its list of the planet's seventeen ... More


Climategate: The Real Story

Michael E. Mann

in The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152556
eISBN:
9780231526388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152556.003.0014
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter takes a look at the real story behind the so-called climategate. On November 17, 2009, a hacker operating via an anonymous server located in Turkey, uploaded a large file, FOIA.zip, to ... More


Turning and Being Turned

Pamela Reynolds

in War in Worcester: Youth and the Apartheid State

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780823243099
eISBN:
9780823250790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823243099.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

The chapter is about betrayal as an indicator of the nature of the context within which a stand was made. It is about protest under close surveillance against powerful odds, with minimal resources ... More


Social Media and Democracy in Crisis

Bradshaw Samantha and Howard Philip N.

in Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198843498
eISBN:
9780191879326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198843498.003.0013
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

The Internet and social media were originally viewed as democratizing technologies that would lead to a more vibrant digital public sphere. Following the outcomes of the 2016 US Presidential Election ... More


The Internet and Access to Information about Politics: Searching through Filter Bubbles, Echo Chambers, and Disinformation

William H. Dutton, Bianca C. Reisdorf, Grant Blank, Elizabeth Dubois, and Laleah Fernandez

in Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198843498
eISBN:
9780191879326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198843498.003.0014
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

Concern over filter bubbles, echo chambers, and misinformation on the Internet are not new. However, as noted by Howard and Bradshaw (Chapter 12), events around the 2016 US presidential election and ... More


Political rumours

David Coast

in News and rumour in Jacobean England: Information, court politics and diplomacy, 1618-25

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780719089480
eISBN:
9781781706435
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719089480.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter analyses the formation, scrutiny and interpretation of political rumours. It examines the psychological functions these rumours served in explaining otherwise inexplicable events and ... More


Can the Internet Survive Democracy?

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines whether the internet can—or cannot—contribute to democratization, and under what conditions. This chapter discusses five major failure modes that limit the benefits of ... More


Epistemic Crisis

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter describes the contours of the epistemic crisis in media and politics that threatens the integrity of democratic processes, erodes trust in public institutions, and exacerbates social ... More


The Propaganda Feedback Loop

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

in Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190923624
eISBN:
9780190923662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923624.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter presents a model of the interaction of media outlets, politicians, and the public with an emphasis on the tension between truth-seeking and narratives that confirm partisan identities. ... More


The Manufacture of Consent

John Denvir

in Freeing Speech: The Constitutional War over National Security

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814720141
eISBN:
9780814785348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814720141.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the implications of the power of presidential speech for national security and for democratic government more generally. The president has a right to communicate his views on ... More


2 The Manufacture of Consent

John Denvir

in Freeing Speech: The Constitutional War over National Security

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814720141
eISBN:
9780814785348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814720141.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the implications of the power of presidential speech for national security and for democratic government more generally. The president has a right to communicate his views on ... More


To Play

Vilém Flusser

in Into the Universe of Technical Images

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816670208
eISBN:
9781452947235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816670208.003.0012
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter explores how information that is unpredictable and improbable can be generated in a dialogic society. The problem of information generation looks as if it suddenly appears from nowhere ... More


Fake News

Leticia Bode, Emily K. Vraga, and Kjerstin Thorson

in Electoral Integrity in America: Securing Democracy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780190934163
eISBN:
9780190934200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190934163.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Democratization

Chapter 7 tackles the challenges posed by misinformation campaigns and fake news, an issue of growing concern in America and around the world. Following the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, ... More


Poland: Unpacking the Ecosystem of Social Media Manipulation

Robert Gorwa

in Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780190931407
eISBN:
9780190934095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190931407.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, International Relations and Politics

This chapter provides the first overview of political bots, fake accounts, and other false amplifiers in Poland. Based on extensive interviews with political campaign managers, journalists, ... More


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