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Evaluation of predictive genetic tests for common diseases: bridging epidemiological, clinical, and public health measures

A. Cecile J. W. Janssens, Marta Gwinn, and Muin J. Khoury

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0022
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses how clinical epidemiologic concepts and methods can be used to assess whether one or more genetic variants (e.g. genome profiles) can be used to predict risk for human ... More


The use of family history in public health practice: the epidemiologic view

Rodolfo Valdez, Muin J. Khoury, and Paula W. Yoon

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0029
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

With the advent of molecular genetics, the accelerated mapping of human genes to specific chromosome locations was made possible without the use of detailed pedigrees. Moreover, following the ... More


Spatial risk assessment and management of disease

Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Timothy P. Robinson, Mark Stevenson, Kim B. Stevens, David J. Rogers, and Archie C. A. Clements

in Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198509882
eISBN:
9780191709128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509882.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the application of spatial analysis in disease management. Topics covered include spatial data in disease risk assessment, and data-driven and knowledge-driven models of ... More


Role of social and behavioral research in assessing the utility of genetic information

Saskia C. Sanderson, Christopher H. Wade, and Colleen M. McBride

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0025
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes and critiques the state of the science with respect to understanding how genetic information has been, and how genomic information might, in the future, be used to improve ... More


Primate socioecology and disease risk: predictions and rationale

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the underlying rationale for factors that influence disease risk in primates at two levels: among individuals and across species. Throughout it summarizes primate behavioural ... More


 Risk of Hypertensive Heart Disease: The Joint Influence of Genetic and Behavioral Factors

Kathleen C. Light, Susan S. Girdler, and Alan L. Hinderliter

in Interdisciplinary Research: Case Studies from Health and Social Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195324273
eISBN:
9780199893966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324273.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes an interdisciplinary research program that studied individual and group differences in the risk for hypertension and heart disease. The differences studied include ones ... More


Presentation and interpretation of epidemiological data on risk

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces the ways in which data are manipulated, with a warning that the end results are often artificial measures that change (and sometimes distort) the perception and interpretation ... More


Tobacco and cardiovascular disease

Konrad Jamrozik

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0031
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the link between smoking and cardiovascular disease. The smoking of tobacco is a major independent risk factor for life-threatening diseases in all four principal ... More


Smoking and other disorders

Allan Hackshaw

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0033
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an overview of the effects of smoking on other disorders, using published reviews and the results of published meta-analyses where available. Smoking is a risk factor for many ... More


The Geography of Disease Transmission

A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Richard G. Pearson, Robert P. Anderson, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Miguel Nakamura, and Miguel Bastos Araújo

in Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136868
eISBN:
9781400840670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136868.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses various applications of ecological niche modeling in the study of the geography and ecology of disease transmission. Niche modeling approaches have many applications in the ... More


Parasites and primate conservation

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter investigates the role of infectious diseases in primate conservation. It focuses on two issues central to the conservation of primates: anthropogenic effects on disease risk in wild ... More


Genetic epidemiology

Harry Campbell and Susan Service

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A major challenge for epidemiology in the future is understanding the role of genetic risk factors and how genetic factors interact with environmental factors in causing disease. There is a clear ... More


From nonhuman primates to human health and evolution

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter considers how understanding infectious disease in nonhuman primates provides insights to human health. In particular, it examines the origins of human infectious diseases and their ... More


Questions, terminology, and underlying principles

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter begins by laying out the purpose of this book, which is to examine the links between parasitism and primate behaviour, ecology and evolution. A question central to this book is ‘what ... More


Conclusions

Diana Kuh and Yoav Ben-Shlomo

in A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198578154
eISBN:
9780191724039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198578154.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a brief summary of the preceding chapters. It then discusses emerging and common themes in life course research, methodological challenges, and policy implications. It ... More


Assessment of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source

S. E. Morris and J. C. Wakefield

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews specific problems of the assessment of disease risk in relation to a pre-specified source. The chapter proceeds as follows. Section 9.2 provides a context for point-source ... More


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

David M. Burns

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0032
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the link between smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the dominant cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both ... More


Sex Differences in Parkinson’s Disease

David G. Standaert and Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0023
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slow progressing neurodegenerative disease affecting up to 3% of the population over the age of 65 years, amounting to more than 500,000 individuals in the United ... More


Measures of Excess Risk

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on associations, describing several quantitative measures of excess risk that can be calculated from epidemiologic data. Estimating the relative risk when incidence rates cannot ... More


Analysis of Proportions

Theodore R. Holford

in Multivariate Methods in Epidemiology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195124408
eISBN:
9780199864270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195124408.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces simple methods that can be applied to the analysis of proportions. The first section discusses some typical study designs that give rise to data that can be analyzed in this ... More


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