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The concept of risk and fundamental measures of disease frequency: Incidence and prevalence

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the concept of risk in epidemiology. Topics covered include quantifying disease frequency, risk factors, and their relationships; incidence and incidence rate; prevalence and ... More


Variation in disease by time, place, and person: A framework for analysis of genetic and environmental effects

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter emphasizes a systematic framework of analysis of disease variations, particularly to ensure that observations of variation are real, and not products of data errors and artifacts. The ... More


Epidemiology in practice

John Wright

in Public Health: An action guide to improving health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199238934
eISBN:
9780191716621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238934.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the following topics: What is epidemiology? How do we measure disease? using rates in measuring disease; describing disease in terms of time, place, and person; defining cases ... More


Measures of Excess Risk

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on associations, describing several quantitative measures of excess risk that can be calculated from epidemiologic data. Estimating the relative risk when incidence rates cannot ... More


Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

Aneel A. Ashrani and John A. Heit

in Venous Thromboembolism in Advanced Disease: A clinical guide

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780199232048
eISBN:
9780191730337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232048.003.0002
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter looks at the epidemiology or health-event patterns associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). It explains that VTE, comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), ... More


Smoothing Sequential Data

Steve Selvin

in Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146189
eISBN:
9780199864720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146189.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the incidence and mortality patterns of Hodgkin's disease among African-Americans during the period 1973 to 1990. The male and female mortality risk from 1973 to 1990 decreased ... More


Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

P. Elliott, J. Cuzick, D. English, and R. Stern (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book addresses both the theoretical and practical issues which arise when describing the geographical distribution of disease and investigating apparent disease clusters. Requirements in terms ... More


Studies of disease clustering: problems of interpretation

J. Urquhart

in Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.003.0024
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

In previous chapters, a distinction was made between the investigation of specific clusters of disease around a putative point source, and geographical surveillance, which involves the identification ... More


Designing Studies in the Field

Richard C. Dicker

in Field Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195313802
eISBN:
9780199863952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313802.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The two most common types of observational studies conducted by field epidemiologists are cohort studies and case control studies. Conceptually, a cohort study, like an experimental study, begins ... More


Introduction

Anne Hardy

in The Epidemic Streets: Infectious Diseases and the Rise of Preventive Medicine 1856–1900

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203773
eISBN:
9780191675966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203773.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The epidemic streets haunted nineteenth-century Britain. From them, the Victorians feared, epidemic diseases would escape to ravage the rest of society. The contributions of epidemiology, and of the ... More


What is epidemiology?: The nature and scope of a biological, clinical, social, and ecological science and of its variables

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the concept of epidemiology. Topics covered include definition of epidemiology and a statement of its central paradigm; directions in epidemiology and its uses; epidemiology as ... More


Some Considerations in Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Public Health Surveillance Data

Andrew B. Lawson

in Monitoring the Health of Populations: Statistical Principles and Methods for Public Health Surveillance

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146493
eISBN:
9780199864928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146493.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter deals with the development and use of statistical methods for geographic disease surveillance. The second section discusses some ideas that are commonly used in statistical process ... More


Specialized registers

A. Ahlbom and N. Hammar

in Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

All epidemiological investigations require information on the number of cases of the health event under study and on the population and time period that generated the cases. In any country, data on ... More


Small-area studies: purpose and methods

J. Cuzick and P. Elliott

in Geographical and Environmental Epidemiology: Methods for Small Area Studies

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622358
eISBN:
9780191723636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622358.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses types of small-area studies and some problems of interpretation. These include studies of reports of disease excess (clusters) in specific localities without a putative source; ... More


The epidemiological concept of population

Raj S. Bhopal

in Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter argues that the concept of population drives epidemiology and its applications. Population thinking emphasizes that disease patterns are the outcome of the interaction between groups of ... More


Mapping mortality data in the United States

L. W. Pickle

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the advantages of and disadvantages of mapping mortality data, methods used in producing mortality atlas, and recent research suggesting improvements in map design that can ... More


Seven Challenges for Spatial Analyses of Vector-Borne Diseases

T. Alex Perkins, Guido España, Sean M. Moore, Rachel J. Oidtman, Swarnali Sharma, Brajendra Singh, Amir S. Siraj, K. James Soda, Morgan Smith, Magdalene K. Walters, and Edwin Michael

in Population Biology of Vector-Borne Diseases

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198853244
eISBN:
9780191887710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853244.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Ecology

Prediction of spatial heterogeneity in disease incidence based on measurable spatial factors is a major goal of spatial epidemiology. There are a number of applied goals of these predictions, ... More


Trends in Heart Attack Treatment and Outcomes, 1975–1995: Literature Review and Synthesis

Paul Heidenreich and Mark McClellan

in Medical Care Output and Productivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226132266
eISBN:
9780226132303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226132303.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Age-adjusted mortality rates for ischemic heart disease have fallen for the last thirty years. The reasons for the decline — which include primary prevention of coronary events, secondary prevention, ... More


Evaluating the Effects of Policies on Health

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The objective of epidemiology is to understand the determinants of disease occurrence in populations. One set of potentially important determinants includes the policies that societies and ... More


Humboldt Park:: A Community United to Challenge Asthma

Molly Martin and Juana Ballesteros

in Urban Health: Combating Disparities with Local Data

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199731190
eISBN:
9780199866465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731190.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The Sinai's Improving Community Health Survey found that Puerto Rican children had the highest asthma prevalence rate of all groups. Twenty-one percent of Puerto Rican children had diagnosed asthma ... More


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