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What Does a Representative Do? Descriptive Representation in Communicative Settings of Distrust, Uncrystallized Interests, and Historically Denigrated Status

Jane Mansbridge

in Citizenship in Diverse Societies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780198297703
eISBN:
9780191602948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829770X.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Disadvantaged groups may want to be represented by individuals who in their own backgrounds mirror the typical experiences of that group; these are descriptive representatives. The analysis presented ... More


Conclusion

Christopher F. Karpowitz and Tali Mendelberg

in The Silent Sex: Gender, Deliberation, and Institutions

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159751
eISBN:
9781400852697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159751.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

This concluding chapter discusses how scholars have established the utility of different types of representation for disadvantaged groups. Descriptive representation refers to the physical presence ... More


Conclusion

Juliet Hooker

in Race and the Politics of Solidarity

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195335361
eISBN:
9780199868995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335361.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The central aims of the book—to show that racialized solidarity poses a significant obstacle to racial justice, and to consider how theories of multiculturalism might incorporate the promotion of ... More


An Immense and (In)complete Democracy: A Tocquevillean Perspective on India’s Experiment with Democratic Citizenship *

Niraja Gopal Jayal

in Anxieties of Democracy: Tocquevillean Reflections on India and the United States

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198077473
eISBN:
9780199081745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198077473.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines India’s experience with democratic citizenship by referring to two interrelated aspects of Alexis de Tocqueville’s argument in Democracy in America. The first argument is about ... More


The Point of Discrimination Law

Tarunabh Khaitan

in A Theory of Discrimination Law

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199656967
eISBN:
9780191748080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656967.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

The systemic purpose of discrimination law is to reduce and eliminate abiding, pervasive, and substantial relative group disadvantage. This purpose is discerned by examining the four necessary ... More


Politics of Inclusion: Castes, Minorities, and Affirmative Action

Zoya Hassan

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198076964
eISBN:
9780199080274
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198076964.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Indian Politics

Situated at the interface of policy and political processes, this study explores the dynamics and strategies of the state with regard to Muslims and lower castes. It examines the underlying issues ... More


Dilemmas of Exclusion

Ian O'flynn

in Deliberative Democracy and Divided Societies

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748621446
eISBN:
9780748672004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748621446.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Deliberative democracy appears to give rise to the following dilemma. The more familiar participants are with one another, the more likely it is that their deliberations will be successful. Knowing ... More


Human rights and equality in education: Conclusion

Sandra Fredman, Meghan Campbell, and Helen Taylor

in Human Rights and Equality in Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Right to Education for Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447337638
eISBN:
9781447337676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447337638.003.0011
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This concluding chapter argues that a human rights-based approach to education offers a promising framework for identifying and addressing the obstacles that stand in the way of minorities and ... More


The Essence of Discrimination Law

Tarunabh Khaitan

in A Theory of Discrimination Law

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199656967
eISBN:
9780191748080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656967.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

A legal norm is a norm of discrimination law if it satisfies four conditions: Personal Grounds Condition: The duty-imposing norm in question must require some connection between the act or omission ... More


The Price of China's Economic Development: Power, Capital, and the Poverty of Rights

Zhaohui Hong

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813161150
eISBN:
9780813161181
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813161150.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

Taking advantage of interdisciplinary research in economics, sociology, political science, and history, this book supplies another analytical dimension of China’s development since 1978 by offering a ... More


A Theory of Discrimination Law

Tarunabh Khaitan

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199656967
eISBN:
9780191748080
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656967.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Most laypersons think of discrimination as an act motivated by prejudice against a minority group. The law, in most cases, prohibits as discriminatory a much broader category of actions. It also ... More


Antipoverty transfers and zero extreme poverty targets

Armando Barrientos

in Did the Millennium Development Goals Work?: Meeting Future Challenges with Past Lessons

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447335702
eISBN:
9781447335740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447335702.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines how anti-poverty transfer programmes can drive global extreme poverty to zero. Current trends indicate that global poverty is a crucial issue not only in poor countries but also ... More


Right to Education Act, 2009

S.K. Das

in India's Rights Revolution: Has It Worked for the Poor?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198081661
eISBN:
9780199082421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198081661.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Indian Politics

This chapter provides a review of the important events that led to the enactment of the Act, including the constraints in realizing the universalization of elementary education, the large number of ... More


Education at the margins: the potential benefits of private educational initiatives for disadvantaged groups

Melanie Smuts

in Human Rights and Equality in Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Right to Education for Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447337638
eISBN:
9781447337676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447337638.003.0004
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter assesses how non-profit private providers can positively contribute to upholding the right to education by looking at the following: the equality of individuals; overcoming the legacies ... More


Shared decision making interventions and health inequalities

Marie-Anne Durand, Robert J. Volk, and Glyn Elwyn

in Shared Decision Making in Health Care: Achieving evidence-based patient choice

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780198723448
eISBN:
9780191790096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723448.003.0035
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Although the positive impact of shared decision making (SDM) interventions has been widely demonstrated, it is unclear whether these tools benefit disadvantaged patients, and are not, on the ... More


Social policies and social control: New perspectives on the ‘not-so-big society’

Malcolm Harrison and Teela Sanders (eds)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447310747
eISBN:
9781447310778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447310747.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Drawing on a wide array of policy domains and events, this book provides an innovative account of social control and behaviourism within welfare systems and social policies, and the implications for ... More


Alcohol-related harm and health inequalities

Katherine Smith, Jon Foster, and Katherine Brown

in Social Determinantsof Health: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Social Inequality and Wellbeing

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447336846
eISBN:
9781447336891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447336846.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines the relationship between alcohol use and health inequalities. It first reviews the evidence and theories concerning health inequalities in morbidity and mortality as well as ... More


Valuing difference and diversity: getting the whole system into the room

Margaret Attwood, Mike Pedler, Sue Pritchard, and David Wilkinson

in Leading change: A guide to whole systems working

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861344496
eISBN:
9781447302674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861344496.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

Many are seeing a societal learning curve where people are moving from a tendency to rely on experts to solve problems or to improve whole systems to individuals themselves wanting more control over ... More


Punishment, Desert, and Equality: A Levinasian Analysis

Benjamin S. Yost

in Death and Other Penalties: Philosophy in a Time of Mass Incarceration

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780823265299
eISBN:
9780823266685
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823265299.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter offers philosophical support for sentencing reform by defending the claim that the disproportionate application of punishment to disadvantaged social groups is unjust. After describing ... More


The State of the State

Vijay Joshi

in India's Long Road: The Search for Prosperity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780190610135
eISBN:
9780190610166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190610135.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

India’s political economy can be understood as the product of two forces: a) ‘awakening’ of hitherto disadvantaged groups; and b) ‘decay’ of institutions of governance. The former is an inevitable ... More


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