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Causation and Manipulation

James Woodward

in Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195155273
eISBN:
9780199835089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195155270.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Directed graphs and equations are useful devices for representing causal relationships. We may distinguish among a number of different causal concepts–direct causes, total causes, contributing ... More


Inference Networks: Bayes and Wigmore

PHILIP DAWID, DAVID SCHUM, and AMANDA HEPLER

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Methods for performing complex probabilistic reasoning tasks, often based on masses of different forms of evidence obtained from a variety of different sources, are being sought by, and developed ... More


On the Origin of Truth Values

Tim Maudlin

in Truth and Paradox: Solving the Riddles

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199247295
eISBN:
9780191601781
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247293.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The formal language developed in ch. 1 is modelled as a directed graph with a boundary, and the problem of assigning truth values to sentences assimilated to a boundary‐value problem. A trivalent ... More


Causal Inference in Perinatal Epidemiology: Revisiting the Birth Weight Paradox

Enrique F. Schisterman and Robert W. Platt

in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195387902
eISBN:
9780199895328
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387902.003.0082
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Does smoking cause neonatal mortality? Understanding causation is essential to inform the creation of effective interventions aimed at improving human health. Causal diagrams in the form of directed ... More


Origins and Mathematics

Roy T Cook

in The Yablo Paradox: An Essay on Circularity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199669608
eISBN:
9780191760600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669608.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter presents the origin, history, and mathematics of the Yablo paradox. Careful formulations of the paradox within both arithmetic and a pointer semantics-based language are presented, as ... More


Causal modelling, mechanism, and probability in epidemiology

Harold Kincaid

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter looks at interrelated issues concerning causality, mechanisms, and probability with a focus on epidemiology. This chapter argues there is a tendency in epidemiology, one found in other ... More


Theories of Causation

James Woodward

in Causation with a Human Face: Normative Theory and Descriptive Psychology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780197585412
eISBN:
9780197585443
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197585412.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter is a critical discussion of some standard accounts of causation in the philosophical literature with brief forays into related literature in psychology and machine learning. Accounts ... More


Observational Cohort Studies

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

In contrast to a randomized trial, an observational cohort study is one in which the investigator observes a group of participants with varying levels of an exposure and then follows-up those ... More


Probabilistic graphical models

Max A. Little

in Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Data Science, Algorithms, and Computational Statistics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198714934
eISBN:
9780191879180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198714934.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy, Mathematical Physics

Statistical machine learning and statistical DSP are built on the foundations of probability theory and random variables. Different techniques encode different dependency structure between these ... More


Graphs for symmetric and unsymmetric matrices

I. S. Duff, A. M. Erisman, and J. K. Reid

in Direct Methods for Sparse Matrices

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198508380
eISBN:
9780191746420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508380.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Following on from the work of the previous chapter, we make extensive use of graphs for the efficient factorization of both symmetric and unsymmetric sparse matrices. It is in this area that most of ... More


Causal Inference, Causal Effect Estimation, and Systematic Error

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

Chapter 3 discusses basic concepts in causal inference, beginning with an introduction to potential outcomes and definitions of causal contrasts (or causal estimates of effect), concepts, terms, and ... More


The Lorax Problem: Introduction to Bayesian Networks

Therese M. Donovan and Ruth M. Mickey

in Bayesian Statistics for Beginners: a step-by-step approach

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198841296
eISBN:
9780191876820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841296.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

The “Lorax Problem” introduces Bayesian networks, another set of methods that makes use of Bayes’ Theorem. The ideas are first explained in terms of a small, standard example that explores two ... More


The Future of the Hypothesis: The Big Data Mindset Versus the Robot Scientist

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter evaluates two possible futures for the hypothesis in scientific thinking in the age of Big Data. In one, the Big Data Mindset entirely shuns hypotheses and the scientific goal of ... More


Generation of Systems Maps: Mapping Complex Systems of Population Health

Helen de Pinho

in Systems Science and Population Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780190492397
eISBN:
9780190492427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190492397.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter outlines an approach to creating conceptual maps that facilitate systems thinking. It begins with a discussion of stakeholder participation in the mapping process, then puts forward ... More


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