## Digits and Digit Identity

*Günter P. Wagner*

### in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691156460
- eISBN:
- 9781400851461
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0012
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter investigates the evolutionary and developmental biology of digits, focusing on what these appendages can teach us about character identity and character origination. The idea that digits ... More

## End-effector Constraints

*Lynette A. Jones and Susan J. Lederman*

### in Human Hand Function

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780195173154
- eISBN:
- 9780199786749
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173154.003.0008
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The manner in which the hand makes contact with the environment constrains or enhances the type of information that can be manually extracted and the actions that can be performed. This chapter ... More

## An Introduction to Benford's Law

*Arno Berger and Theodore P. Hill*

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691163062
- eISBN:
- 9781400866588
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691163062.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This book provides the first comprehensive treatment of Benford's law, the surprising logarithmic distribution of significant digits discovered in the late nineteenth century. Establishing the ... More

## Introduction

*Arno Berger and Theodore P. Hill*

### in An Introduction to Benford's Law

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691163062
- eISBN:
- 9781400866588
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691163062.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This introductory chapter provides an overview of Benford' law. Benford's law, also known as the First-digit or Significant-digit law, is the empirical gem of statistical folklore that in many ... More

## Act natural, because of Benford’s Law

*Susan D'Agostino*

### in How to Free Your Inner Mathematician: Notes on Mathematics and Life

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- April 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198843597
- eISBN:
- 9780191879388
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198843597.003.0008
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Educational Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

“Act natural, because of Benford’s Law” explains how and why large data sets generated as a result of human behavior concerning health records, population counts, tax returns, stock prices, national ... More

## Vertebrate Limb Evolution

*Michel Laurin*

### in How Vertebrates Left the Water

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- March 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780520266476
- eISBN:
- 9780520947986
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- University of California Press
- DOI:
- 10.1525/california/9780520266476.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

To understand the colonization of land by vertebrates, this chapter studies the origin and evolution of limbs, and especially of their skeleton, first examining the vertebrate skeleton, and then ... More

## Digital Calculators

*Gualtiero Piccinini*

### in Physical Computation: A Mechanistic Account

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- August 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780199658855
- eISBN:
- 9780191748158
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658855.003.0011
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explicates digital calculators in mechanistic terms. A digital calculator is a digital computing system whose function is to perform a few computational operations on strings of digits ... More

## A Quick Introduction to Benfordʼs Law

*Steven J. Miller*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides a brief overview of Benford's law. It states Benford's law of digit bias and describes its history. The chapter then discusses the origins of Benford's law and gives numerous ... More

## A Short Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Benfordʼs Law

*Arno Berger and T. P. Hill*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter embarks on a brief discussion of the mathematical theory of Benford's law. This law is the observation that in many collections of numbers, be they mathematical tables, real-life data, ... More

## Can Vote Countsʼ Digits and Benfordʼs Law Diagnose Elections?

*Walter R. Mebane,*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0009
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter illustrates how the conditional mean of precinct vote counts' second digits can respond to strategic behavior by voters in response to the presence of a coalition among political ... More

## Complementing Benfordʼs Law for Small N: A Local Bootstrap

*Boudewijn F. Roukema*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0010
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter analyzes the initially published results of the 2009 Iranian presidential elections. It applies a small N statistical first-digit frequency test that is as nonparametric as possible in a ... More

## Testing for Strategic Manipulation of Economic and Financial Data

*Charles C. Moul and John V. C. Nye*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0013
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter surveys applications of Benford's law within economics, such as its use in investigating the validity of macroeconomic data series. It argues that, given the strong interest in strategic ... More

## Generalizing Benfordʼs Law

*Joanne Lee, Wendy K. Tam Cho, and George Judge*

### in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691147611
- eISBN:
- 9781400866595
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0017
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter examines and searches for evidence of fraud in two clinical data sets from a highly publicized case of scientific misconduct. In this case, data were falsified by Eric Poehlman, a ... More

## Significant Digits and the Significand

*Arno Berger and Theodore P. Hill*

### in An Introduction to Benford's Law

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691163062
- eISBN:
- 9781400866588
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691163062.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Benford's law is a statement about the statistical distribution of significant (decimal) digits or, equivalently, about significands, namely fraction parts in floating-point arithmetic. Thus, a ... More

## Describing Data

*Deborah Nolan and Sara Stoudt*

### in Communicating with Data: The Art of Writing for Data Science

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- July 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198862741
- eISBN:
- 9780191895357
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198862741.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis, Applied Mathematics

This chapter covers how to write about data analyzed for a technical article. Examples are provided for writing a data description, including how to reference the source of the data, describe methods ... More

## Zero: Place-holder and peculiar number

*Marcel Danesi*

### in Pythagoras' Legacy: Mathematics in Ten Great Ideas

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198852247
- eISBN:
- 9780191886959
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198852247.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Educational Mathematics

Numerals are symbols that represent numbers. The most commonly used numerals, which are easy to read after one has learned to use them, are the decimal ones. The principle used to construct them is ... More

## The Influence of Verbal Working Memory on Writing Skills in Children with Hearing Loss

*Barbara Arfé, Federica Nicolini, and Elena Pozzebon*

### in Writing Development in Children with Hearing Loss, Dyslexia, or Oral Language Problems: Implications for Assessment and Instruction

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2014
- ISBN:
- 9780199827282
- eISBN:
- 9780190231781
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199827282.003.0007
- Subject:
- Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The chapter examines the relationship between verbal working memory and writing in a group of 34 children with hearing loss. The writing performance of 17 deaf children with low digit-span scores was ... More

## Monkeys with World-Spanning Voices

*Peter J. Bentley*

### in Digitized: The science of computers and how it shapes our world

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780199693795
- eISBN:
- 9780191918421
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780199693795.003.0009
- Subject:
- Computer Science, History of Computer Science

The howler monkey is one of the loudest animals in the world. Its haunting calls can be heard several miles away in dense forest. Today, with the help of the computer, even the quietest human voice ... More

## Data: The Given

*Stephen Humphreys*

### in International Law's Objects

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- February 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198798200
- eISBN:
- 9780191858642
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198798200.003.0016
- Subject:
- Law, Public International Law

What is data, and how does it matter for international law? This chapter examines the material nature of the binary digit—the bit—to show three characteristics that mark it out as an object of ... More

## The 1970s Fiscal Squeeze: Stagflation, Recession, Currency Crisis, and Political Crisis

*Christopher Hood and Rozana Himaz*

### in A Century of Fiscal Squeeze Politics: 100 Years of Austerity, Politics, and Bureaucracy in Britain

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- June 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198779612
- eISBN:
- 9780191824661
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198779612.003.0007
- Subject:
- Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter describes fiscal squeeze in an era of high political volatility and major economic challenges, including mass unemployment, a sharp increase in oil prices, double-digit inflation (i.e. a ... More