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The Computer Industry

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The first all-purpose digital computer, completed in 1946, was developed by John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, and associates at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical ... More


Introduction

Ronald de Sousa

in Why Think?: Evolution and the Rational Mind

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189858
eISBN:
9780199868377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189858.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the concept of rationality. It then discusses the difference between digital computers and analog computers, the origins and limits of ... More


Digital Computers

Gualtiero Piccinini

in Physical Computation: A Mechanistic Account

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199658855
eISBN:
9780191748158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658855.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explicates digital computers in mechanistic terms. It offers a systematic taxonomy of kinds of digital computer, including hard-wired vs. programmable and general-purpose vs. ... More


Analog Computers

Gualtiero Piccinini

in Physical Computation: A Mechanistic Account

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199658855
eISBN:
9780191748158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658855.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explicates analog computers in mechanistic terms. Problems with the analog-digital distinction are discussed, in particular with grounding the distinction solely in the ... More


After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and Machines

James A. Anderson

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199357789
eISBN:
9780190675264
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357789.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

We are surrounded by digital computers. They do many things well that humans do not and have transformed our lives. But all computers are not the same. Although digital computers dominate today’s ... More


What Lies Ahead: Virtuality, the Body, and the Computer Screen

Kate Mondloch

in Screens: Viewing Media Installation Art

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816665211
eISBN:
9781452946504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816665211.003.0005
Subject:
Art, Visual Culture

This chapter examines the transformations in the spatial conditions of viewing media art accompanied by powerful yet unstructured networks associated with digital computer screens. It states that the ... More


In the fMRI Laboratory

Morana Alač

in Handling Digital Brains: A Laboratory Study of Multimodal Semiotic Interaction in the Age of Computers

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015684
eISBN:
9780262295475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015684.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter starts with the introduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology and its role in medicine and science, especially in cognitive neuroscience, and also explains the ... More


Computing Hardware: Digital

James A. Anderson

in After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and Machines

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199357789
eISBN:
9780190675264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357789.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Digital computers are built from hardware of great simplicity. First, they are built from devices with two states: on or off, one or zero, high voltage or low voltage, or logical TRUE or FALSE. ... More


Programmability

Wendy Hui Kyong Chun

in Software Studies: A Lexicon

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062749
eISBN:
9780262273343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062749.003.0032
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter briefly discusses the different conceptions of program and programmability in the digital computer field; the discussion continues with two different grammatical definitions of the term ... More


The Red Queen’s Race

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter introduces the idea that technology, invented millennia ago, is developing at an even increasing pace, creating the need for all systems to develop to avoid becoming obsolete. This is ... More


Creating Insight: Gestalt Theory and the Early Computer

David Bates

in Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720807
eISBN:
9780226720838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720838.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter questions the underlying assumptions of both classic Artificial Intelligence, founded in the analogy between the brain and the digital computer, and the newer tradition that construes ... More


Computers and the Politics of Systematics

Christine Hine

in Systematics as Cyberscience: Computers, Change, and Continuity in Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083713
eISBN:
9780262275408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083713.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter can be regarded as the continuation of the preceding chapter; in this section, the author extends his views in the field of systematics in a detailed way. The chapter explores the role ... More


Synthesis

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Principles of cortical computation, and not a whole theory of cortical computation, are described. However, Chapter 18 on the evolution of the cortex and Section 26.5.18 come close to presenting ... More


Computation

Nico Orlandi

in The Innocent Eye: Why Vision Is Not a Cognitive Process

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199375035
eISBN:
9780199375059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199375035.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The final chapter concludes the case in favor of the embedded view by showing that the view is compatible with computational theories of mental activity. This is true for two reasons. First, there ... More


Quantum

Lance Fortnow

in The Golden Ticket: P, NP, and the Search for the Impossible

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175782
eISBN:
9781400846610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175782.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming

This chapter examines the power of quantum computing, as well as the related concepts of quantum cryptography and teleportation. In 1982, the Nobel prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman noticed ... More


Chips with Everything

David Segal

in Materials for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198804079
eISBN:
9780191842320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804079.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Chapter 3 highlights the critical role materials have in the development of digital computers. It traces developments from the cat’s whisker to valves through to relays and transistors. Accounts are ... More


Introduction

in Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226902029
eISBN:
9780226902050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226902050.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This introduction discusses the theme of this book, which is about computer simulation and the philosophy of science. The book examines what philosophers of science should learn in the age of ... More


What Did Alan Turing Mean by “Machine”?

Andrew Hodges

in The Mechanical Mind in History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083775
eISBN:
9780262256384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083775.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter focuses on the title of Alan Turing’s unpublished 1948 report “Intelligent Machinery” to explore what Turing intended by an “intelligent machine.” Turing saw central roles for new ... More


Giant Brains

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0034
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter looks at the use of digital computers by scientists to solve the complex equations needed for numerical weather prediction. The first attempts used the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical ... More


Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Kristine C. Harper

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

For much of the first half of the twentieth century, meteorology was more art than science, dependent on an individual forecaster’s lifetime of local experience. This book tells the story of the ... More


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