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Properties of Liquid Water

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann

in The Structure and Properties of Water

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570264
eISBN:
9780191715266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570264.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Efforts to verify or invalidate hypotheses on the structure of liquid water have been hampered by the lack of a general theory of the liquid state. In the absence of such a theory, conclusions about ... More


DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES

C.G. GRAY, K.E. GUBBINS, and C.G. JOSLIN

in Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780198556213
eISBN:
9780191729041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198556213.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Modern classical and quantum theories of the dielectric constant of polar and polarizable fluids are considered. These include approaches based on perturbation theory, integral equations, and virial ... More


Dielectric constant

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The dielectric constant K is a measure of a material’s ability to store electric charge. In scalar form the defining relations are as follows: . . . D = εE, . . . where D is the electric ... More


Dielectric materials

L. Solymar, D. Walsh, and R. R. A. Syms

in Electrical Properties of Materials

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198829942
eISBN:
9780191868504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198829942.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The macroscopic and microscopic approaches to determining polarization are explained. The types of polarization, frequency response, and anomalous dispersion are discussed. The Debye equation for ... More


Dispersion

B. D. Guenther

in Modern Optics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198738770
eISBN:
9780191801983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738770.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The result of sluggish response of atoms and molecules to light waves is dispersion (i.e., variation of the index of refraction with frequency). A classical model is used to visualize the optical ... More


Dipolar glasses

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The physics of dipolar glasses is briefly discussed. It is shown that the local dipolar structure can be characterized by a local polarization distribution function and not by the homogeneous ... More


The liquid state

ANGELO GAVEZZOTTI

in Molecular Aggregation: Structure analysis and molecular simulation of crystals and liquids

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570806
eISBN:
9780191718779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570806.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

In the gaseous state, molecules are to a good approximation isolated entities traveling in space at high speed with sparse and near elastic collisions. At the other extreme, a perfect crystal has a ... More


Applications of Density Functional Theory to Biological Systems

Tomasz Adam Wesolowski and Jacques Weber

in Molecular Orbital Calculations for Biological Systems

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195098730
eISBN:
9780197560891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195098730.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Quantum and Theoretical Chemistry

The term biological systems may be used in reference to a wide class of polyatomic systems. They can be defined as minimal functional units which perform specific biological functions: enzymatic ... More


Microwave Observations of Soil Hydrology

T. J. Jackson and E. T. Encman

in Vadose Zone Hydrology: Cutting Across Disciplines

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195109900
eISBN:
9780197561058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195109900.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The upper few centimeters of the soil are extremely important because they are the interface between soil science and land-atmosphere research and are also the region of the greatest amount of ... More


Electric Behavior of Insulators

J. B. Ketterson

in The Physics of Solids

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198742906
eISBN:
9780191821523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742906.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism in free space involves two fields: the electric field, E, and the magnetic field, M. When material media are present two more fields are introduced: the electric ... More


Wannier Excitons

Monique Combescot and Shiue-Yuan Shiau

in Excitons and Cooper Pairs: Two Composite Bosons in Many-Body Physics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198753735
eISBN:
9780191815287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753735.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 3 deals with Wannier excitons, which are the most commonly studied excitons. Via a phenomenological approach, the formation of a Wannier exciton from a delocalized electron and a delocalized ... More


Boltzmann’s contributions to other branches of physics

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Ludwig Boltzmann's scientific activities were mainly devoted to statistical mechanics: in large measure to kinetic theory, but he also founded the formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics for ... More


Metals and the Drude–Lorentz Model

J. B. Ketterson

in The Physics of Solids

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198742906
eISBN:
9780191821523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742906.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In its more modern context, the Drude–Lorentz model views a material as consisting of an array of the following: fixed positive ions and free electrons; or neutral atoms, or balanced positive and ... More


Integral Equation Methods

C. G. Gray and K. E. Gubbins

in Theory of Molecular Fluids: I: Fundamentals

Published in print:
1984
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198556022
eISBN:
9780191919251
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198556022.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

In this chapter we describe some of the integral equation methods which have been devised for calculating the angular pair correlation function g(rω1ω2) and the site-site pair correlation function ... More


Introduction

Brian G. Cox

in Acids and Bases: Solvent Effects on Acid-Base Strength

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199670512
eISBN:
9780199670512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670512.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Non-aqueous solvents typically lack water’s ability to solvate effectively both anions and cations, and consequently have acidity scales that differ considerably from those in water. These ... More


Nontraditional techniques

Wolfgang Schmickler

in Interfacial Electrochemistry

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195089325
eISBN:
9780197560563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195089325.003.0021
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The traditional electrochemical techniques are based on the measurement of current and potential, and, in the case of liquid electrodes, of the surface tension. While such measurements can be very ... More


Fluctuations and Critical Behavior

Eldred H. Chimowitz

in Introduction to Critical Phenomena in Fluids

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195119305
eISBN:
9780197561249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195119305.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

An important historical result with the Ising model was the achievement of an exact analytical solution by Onsager for the two-dimensional case. It is one of the few statistical-mechanical models ... More


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