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SLAKING OUR THIRST: The Cholera Bacteria and Its Toxic Viruses

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae and its toxic viruses. The cholera bacterium causes disease and death when the infection results in a continual watery diarrhea that ... More


Gastrointestinal symptoms

Justin Amery, Michelle Meiring, and Caroline Rose

in Children's Palliative Care in Africa

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780199567966
eISBN:
9780191730566
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199567966.003.0008
Subject:
Palliative Care, Paediatric Palliative Medicine, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter notes that children with HIV/AIDS or cancer are very prone to mouth problems, particularly those who are malnourished. One of the most common causes of vomiting in children's palliative ... More


Special pathogens

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the following: clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea, gastrointestinal infections, blood-borne viral infections, tuberculosis, respiratory viral infections, respiratory ... More


Feeding sick people, especially children

Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess

in Nutrition for Developing Countries

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622334
eISBN:
9780191723643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622334.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the feeding of sick children. Topics discussed include the reasons why a sick child may not eat enough, what families need to know about feeding sick children, feeding ... More


Who Should Be Responsible for Food Safety?: Oysters as a Case Study

Matthew Morse Booker

in Food Fights: How History Matters to Contemporary Food Debates

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781469652894
eISBN:
9781469652917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469652894.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The paradox of modern life is that consumers demand government protect them from an ever-greater range of risks, but at the same time complain about ever-greater government control. Reviewing ... More


The Sanatorium of Darjeeling: European Health in a Tropical Enclave

in Contagion and Enclaves: Tropical Medicine in Colonial India

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9781846318290
eISBN:
9781846317835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846317835.002
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

The British established hill-stations in Asia to facilitate the creation of an exclusive, clean, and secure social space – known as an enclave – for white Europeans. In colonial India, racial ... More


Knowledge in the Time of Cholera: The Struggle over American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century

Owen Whooley

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226017464
eISBN:
9780226017778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017778.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Vomiting. Diarrhea. Dehydration. Death. Confusion. In 1832, the arrival of cholera in the United States created widespread panic throughout the country. For the rest of the century, epidemics swept ... More


Concepts and approaches

Stuart Blume, Sidsel Roalkvam, and Desmond McNeill (eds)

in Protecting the World’s Children: Immunisation policies and Practices

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199666447
eISBN:
9780191749285
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666447.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Using viral diarrhoea and the rotavirus vaccine as illustration, this chapter introduces the key concepts to be used in the book. Diarrhoea is responsible for the deaths of some 1.5 million children ... More


Urban Under Development, Politics, and the Land Scape of Health

Samuel Kelton Jr. Roberts

in Infectious Fear: Politics, Disease, and the Health Effects of Segregation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807832592
eISBN:
9781469605890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807894071_roberts.7
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter shows how the built environment of Baltimore and the disease conditions it produced set the ground on which tuberculosis (TB) politics would unfold. The depth of the problem is suggested ... More


Medicine You Can Walk On

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the many ways that pica substances have been used to heal a range of ailments. It begins by discussing some of the physical and chemical features of clay. It then describes ... More


Gastroenterology

Nigel Lane, Louise Powter, and Sam Patel (eds)

in Best of Five MCQs for the Acute Medicine SCE

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199680269
eISBN:
9780191918360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199680269.003.0006
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the acute medical unit with a one-week history of diarrhoea. She was opening her bowels four times per day. She had recently started a new medication. On ... More


1916: “Oh, I Am So Glad to Have Had This Work!”

Barbara Barksdale Clowse

in A Doctor for Rural America: The Reforms of Frances Sage Bradley

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780813179773
eISBN:
9780813179780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813179773.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Bradley spent a year investigating the health of rural North Carolinians in the coastal plain and mountains. Disparity between the care available to whites and blacks challenged Bradley’s racial ... More


Testing your metal: An exhibition of the metals which our body must have

John Emsley

in Molecules at an Exhibition: Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502661
eISBN:
9780191916458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502661.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Ask people which metals are essential for healthy living and I suspect most would say zinc and iron. Some might mention sodium and potassium, although sodium is often regarded as something ... More


Small intestinal disorders

Thomas Marjot

in Best of Five MCQS for the European Specialty Examination in Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780198834373
eISBN:
9780191933394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834373.003.0006
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Gastroenterology

This chapter covers core curriculum topics relating to small intestinal disorders and malabsorption. This includes a discussion of key gut hormones involved in digestion and absorptive processes ... More


Things with Wings

Anne Hardy

in Salmonella Infections, Networks of Knowledge, and Public Health in Britain, 1880-1975

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198704973
eISBN:
9780191774058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704973.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter uses the examples of the transmission of diarrhoea and typhoid via flies and duck eggs to illustrate the ways in which human perceptions of risk can and cannot be changed. Flies were the ... More


A Legacy of Empires? An Exploration of the Environmental and Medical Consequences of Metal Production in Wadi Faynan, Jordan

David D. Gilbertson and Sharon Taylor

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0023
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

We have explored, and outline herein, the accumulation of copper in humans, plants, and animals in a remote desert area of southwest Jordan, Wadi Faynan, where mining and smelting activities began ... More


Special Groups

Dom Colbert

in MCQs in Travel Medicine

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199664528
eISBN:
9780191918315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199664528.003.0012
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

It is convenient to separate those who differ from the general travelling population into easily identifiable categories or special groups. Each of these groups will require advice, medication, or ... More


Epidemics in Early Wars

Matthew Smallman-Raynor and Andrew Cliff

in War Epidemics: An Historical Geography of Infectious Diseases in Military Conflict and Civil Strife, 1850-2000

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233640
eISBN:
9780191916489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233640.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

While our selection of the time period, AD 1850–1990, for the analytical work we undertake in Chapters 3 to 12 is conditioned by the availability of consolidated morbidity and mortality data for ... More


Mortality and Morbidity in Modern Wars, I: Civil Populations

Matthew Smallman-Raynor and Andrew Cliff

in War Epidemics: An Historical Geography of Infectious Diseases in Military Conflict and Civil Strife, 1850-2000

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233640
eISBN:
9780191916489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233640.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

In this chapter, we examine the time trends that have occurred in the causes of morbidity and mortality in civil populations over the last century and a half. Particular attention is paid to the ... More


Mortality and Morbidity in Modern Wars, II: Military Populations

Matthew Smallman-Raynor and Andrew Cliff

in War Epidemics: An Historical Geography of Infectious Diseases in Military Conflict and Civil Strife, 1850-2000

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233640
eISBN:
9780191916489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233640.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

In the previous chapter, we looked at the main trends in morbidity and mortality in civil populations since 1850. In this chapter our focus shifts to the military. An invaluable recent source of ... More


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