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The Mixed‐Member Proportional System and Its Consequences in Bolivia

René Antonio Mayorga

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0020
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Bolivia's mixed‐member proportional (MMP) electoral system was only established in 1994 and was applied for the first time in the elections of June 1997, so it is not yet possible to make a ... More


The Consequences of Mexico's Mixed‐Member Electoral System, 1988–1997

Jeffrey A. Weldon

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mexico has experimented with mixed‐member electoral systems for many years, is probably the second oldest mixed‐member system after Germany, and has modified its mixed system more than any other ... More


Debates and Controversies on Abortion in Italy

Marina Calloni

in Abortion Politics, Women's Movements, and the Democratic State: A Comparative Study of State Feminism

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242665
eISBN:
9780191600258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242666.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The debate over legalization of abortion dominated politics in Italy in the 1970s, part of a broader challenge to Catholic domination over families and women. Subsequent debates have revolved around ... More


Bulgaria

Venelin I. Ganev

in Semi-Presidentialism in Europe

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293866
eISBN:
9780191599156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293860.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The semi‐presidential regime in Bulgaria is of recent origin: it was established in July 1991, when a Great National Assembly adopted a new constitution, which proclaims that ‘Bulgaria shall be a ... More


A Constitution for an Empire of Citizens

Frederick Cooper

in Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945-1960

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161310
eISBN:
9781400850280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161310.003.0003
Subject:
History, African History

This chapter examines the constitutional debates that went on from December 1945 to September 1946. This legislative drama concerning the new constitution took place in three stages: in the ... More


Defining Citizenship, 1946–1956

Frederick Cooper

in Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945-1960

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161310
eISBN:
9781400850280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161310.003.0004
Subject:
History, African History

This chapter focuses on a series of debates, largely conducted in Paris, in which African deputies participated vigorously but with considerable frustration over the design of the French Union: how ... More


Lanfranc and King William I

H. E. J. COWDREY

in Lanfranc: Scholar, Monk, Archbishop

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199259601
eISBN:
9780191717406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259601.003.0013
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

Like most leading churchmen of his time, Lanfranc favoured strong kings who provided peace and justice in a violent world, not least for churches, monks, and all grades of clergy. During the ... More


The Shadow of Bismarck, 1871–1878

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206118
eISBN:
9780191717178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206118.003.0012
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Two months after Italian soldiers captured Rome, general elections were held in Italy. Francesco Crispi stood again in the college of Castelvetrano. He had also been elected in the college of ... More


The Chairman and the Top Team

Adrian Cadbury

in Corporate Governance and Chairmanship A Personal View

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199252008
eISBN:
9780191698088
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199252008.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Corporate Governance and Accountability, Strategy

This chapter considers the positions of deputy chairman and senior independent director as one. An advantage of combining both positions is that it avoids creating an extra post at board level and ... More


Making and Co-ordinating Expenditure Policy

Colin Thain and Maurice Wright

in The Treasury and Whitehall: The Planning and Control of Public Expenditure, 1976–1993

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277842
eISBN:
9780191684203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277842.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Political Economy

The roles and responsibilities of the Chief Secretary and his most senior adviser are discussed in this chapter including those of the Deputy Secretaries and their Under Secretaries at the head of ... More


Ambiguities of Abolition: The Revolution and Venality

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The members of the National Assembly who abolished the sale of public office in August 1789 were no strangers to venality. Of the 1,315 deputies who sat between 1789 and 1791, 483 either held, or had ... More


Officers

Matthew Rendle

in Defenders of the Motherland: The Tsarist Elite in Revolutionary Russia

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199236251
eISBN:
9780191717154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236251.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter analyses how the traditionally apolitical officer corps became increasingly politicized during 1917. This was evident in the creation of the Union of Republican Officers and the Soviet ... More


Representation, Coordination, and Civilization: The Board of Deputies of British Jews and Communal Government

Michael Clark

in Albion and Jerusalem: The Anglo-Jewish Community in the Post-Emancipation Era

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199562343
eISBN:
9780191721441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562343.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter focuses upon Anglo-Jewry's internal communal government, in particular the activities and operation of the Board of Deputies of British Jews. This quasi-democratic, quasi-oligarchic ... More


The Birth of a Book

Arthur Kaledin

in Tocqueville and His America: A Darker Horizon

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300119312
eISBN:
9780300176209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300119312.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Alexis de Tocqueville describes the experience of writing his book Democracy in America as a colossal emotional struggle. He likens its writing to a journey over “un autre terrain,” a journey on ... More


The Loss of Innocence

Alan Forrest

in The Revolution in Provincial France: Aquitaine, 1789–1799

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206163
eISBN:
9780191676994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206163.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines the impact of the start of the French Revolution on the situation in Aquitaine. During this period, exaggerated expectations had been aroused in the region where political ... More


Out with the Old, In with the New

Robert M. Uriu

in Clinton and Japan: The Impact of Revisionism on US Trade Policy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199280568
eISBN:
9780191712814
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280568.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

Revisionist assumptions reached their peak just as the Clinton administration was taking office. In this chapter the author demonstrates how the new policy team quickly rejected traditionalist ... More


The Government of Wentworth, 1632–40

Aidan Clarke

in A New History of Ireland: Early Modern Ireland 1534-1691

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199562527
eISBN:
9780191701849
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562527.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter describes the government of Thomas Viscount Wentworth, who became lord deputy of Ireland January 1632. He was one of a group who were loosely associated together in support of the king's ... More


Left Liberal Parliamentarians

Alastair P. Thompson

in Left Liberals, the State, and Popular Politics in Wilhelmine Germany

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205432
eISBN:
9780191676635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205432.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

This chapter explores how left liberal deputies (and party politicians in general) actually functioned in Berlin. Attention has been brought by John Röhl, Isabel Hull, and others to court politics ... More


Defending the Reich: Left Liberals and German Politics from January 1912 to the July Crisis 1914

Alastair P. Thompson

in Left Liberals, the State, and Popular Politics in Wilhelmine Germany

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205432
eISBN:
9780191676635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205432.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The aftermath of the 1912 Reichstag elections offered a strange mixture of change, continuity, and confusion. There had been a striking clear-out of sitting deputies: only 187 of the 397 deputies ... More


The Election of the Hong Kong Deputies to the National People's Congress

Sonny Shiu-Hing Lo

in The Dynamics of Beijing-Hong Kong Relations: A Model for Taiwan?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622099081
eISBN:
9789882207547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622099081.003.0008
Subject:
History, Political History

This chapter explores the politics of selecting Hong Kong members of the Tenth National People's Congress (NPC) as well as the role of the Liaison Officer in the second election of NPC deputies. As ... More


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