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Influences on Ecosystem Function IV: Nitrogen Biogeochemistry

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ungulate grazing, primarily by elk and bison, accelerates nitrogen cycling within the northern-range system by consumption, digestion, excretion, and subsequent mineralization. Ungulate use does not ... More


Stormwater: A Resource for Scientists, Engineers, and Policy Makers

William G. Wilson

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226364957
eISBN:
9780226365145
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226365145.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

As a village grows into a city, its surfaces increasingly become covered by materials that prevent rain from soaking into the ground. Even small rainfalls on these impervious surfaces produce high ... More


Nutrients

William G. Wilson

in Stormwater: A Resource for Scientists, Engineers, and Policy Makers

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226364957
eISBN:
9780226365145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226365145.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, which produce many stormwater problems because of urban and agricultural land use contributions. The discussion covers both low ... More


Streams and Trees: Riparian Ecosystems

William G. Wilson

in Stormwater: A Resource for Scientists, Engineers, and Policy Makers

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226364957
eISBN:
9780226365145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226365145.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter describes how forested riparian buffers provide ecosystem services that offset the impacts of urbanization. These trees grow roots that help with stormwater infiltration, and provide ... More


Earth: Human Impact

Yuk L. Yung and William B. DeMore

in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195105018
eISBN:
9780197560990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195105018.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

For eons the global environment of the planet has shaped the biosphere, and has been in turn shaped by the biosphere. According to the Gaia hypothesis, the overall impact of the biosphere on the ... More


The Nitrogen Cycle and Climate

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The nitrogen cycle is described, together with its denitrification and nitrification processes, including the Anammox process. The importance of human intervention through the Haber–Bosch process is ... More


Wild Things

Sharon Levy

in The Marsh Builders: The Fight for Clean Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190246402
eISBN:
9780197559550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190246402.003.0015
Subject:
Environmental Science, Pollution and Threats to the Environment

A group of sea otters laze at the edge of Elkhorn Slough. They float on their backs in the steel- gray water, paws folded against their chests, gazing at the small boat steered by ecologist Brent ... More


The Tide Rises

Sharon Levy

in The Marsh Builders: The Fight for Clean Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190246402
eISBN:
9780197559550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190246402.003.0017
Subject:
Environmental Science, Pollution and Threats to the Environment

David Sedlak, an environmental engineering professor at the University of California–Berkeley, stands on a levee near San Francisco Bay’s eastern shore. Manmade embankments extend for many miles, ... More


The Composition of Soils

Garrison Sposito

in The Chemistry of Soils

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190630881
eISBN:
9780197559710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190630881.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

Soils are porous media created at the land surface through weathering processes mediated by biological, geological, and hydrological phenomena. From the point of view of chemistry, soils are open ... More


Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Fauna

Stephen Widdicombe and John I. Spicer

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The vast majority of the seafloor is covered not in rocky or biogenic reefs but in unconsolidated sediments and, consequently, the majority of marine biodiversity consists of invertebrates either ... More


Biogeochemical Consequences of Ocean Acidification and Feedbacks to the Earth System

Marion Gehlen and Nicolas Gruber

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

By the year 2008, the ocean had taken up approximately 140 Gt carbon corresponding to about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere since the onset of industrialization ... More


7 Microbial Contributions to Biodiversity in Deserts

Peter M. Groffman and Moshe Shachak

in Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195139853
eISBN:
9780197561720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195139853.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

The number of species living in the soil may well represent the largest reservoir of biodiversity on earth (Giller 1996, Wardle and Giller 1996, Service 1997). Five thousand microbial species have ... More


Linking Biogeochemical Cycles to Cattle Pasture Management and Sustainability in the Amazon Basin

Moacyr B. Dias-Filho, Eric A. Davidson, and Cláudio J. Reis de Carvalho

in The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Pasture development has become the largest anthropogenic disturbance of forest land in the Amazon basin (Skole et al. 1994, Serrão and Toledo 1990). The area of forests converted to cattle pasture ... More


Soil and Climate Change

Richard Bardgett

in Earth Matters: How soil underlies civilization

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199668564
eISBN:
9780191918339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199668564.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

“The world’s climate is changing. Not only is it getting warmer, but also there are more extreme weather events, such as droughts, storms, and catastrophic floods. Humans are undoubtedly the cause ... More


Biogeochemistry of Amazon Floodplain Lakes and Associated Wetlands

John M. Melack and Bruce R. Forsberg

in The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Floodplains and associated lakes are important components of the biogeochemistry, ecology, and hydrology of the Amazon basin. Amazon floodplains contain thousands of lakes and associated wetlands ... More


Nitrogen Cycle

Thomas S. Bianchi

in Biogeochemistry of Estuaries

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195160826
eISBN:
9780197562048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195160826.003.0020
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Elemental nitrogen (N2) makes up 80% of the atmosphere (by volume) and represents the dominant form of atmospheric nitrogen gas. Despite its high atmospheric abundance, N2 is generally nonreactive, ... More


Estuarine–Coastal Interactions

Thomas S. Bianchi

in Biogeochemistry of Estuaries

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195160826
eISBN:
9780197562048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195160826.003.0028
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The coastal ocean is a dynamic region where the rivers, estuaries, ocean, land, and the atmosphere interact (Walsh, 1988; Mantoura et al., 1991; Alongi, 1998; Wollast, 1998). Coastlines extend over ... More


Properties and Management of Smectitic Soils

S. R. Juo, Anthony and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Smectitic soils of the tropics are medium- to fine-textured alluvial soils containing moderate to large amounts (20% or more) of smectite, a shrinking and swelling clay mineral, in the clay ... More


Soil–Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Gases in the Colorado Shortgrass Steppe

Arvin R. Mosier and William J. Parton

in Ecology of the Shortgrass Steppe: A Long-Term Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195135824
eISBN:
9780197561638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195135824.003.0018
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

During the past half century, atmospheric concentrations of important greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been increasing at unprecedented ... More


Solute Interchange between Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases in the Soil

Peter B. Tinker and Peter Nye

in Solute Movement in the Rhizosphere

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195124927
eISBN:
9780197561324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195124927.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

We noted in Chapter 1 that the concentration of solute in the soil solution is buffered by solute adsorbed on the soil surfaces. We also show in Chapter 4 that the overall mobility of ions is ... More


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