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The Value‐Based Approach

Ian Carter

in A Measure of Freedom

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294535
eISBN:
9780191598951
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294530.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Most of those political philosophers who have tried to make sense of claims about degrees of freedom have proposed that the individual options available to the agent be weighted in terms of their ... More


Self‐Mastery

Ian Carter

in A Measure of Freedom

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294535
eISBN:
9780191598951
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294530.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Some of the authors who adopt the value-based approach to measuring freedom think of freedom as the absence not only of constraints that are external to the agent but also of constraints that are ... More


Hypothesis Testing for the Long‐Run Coefficients β

Søren Johansen

in Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774501
eISBN:
9780191596476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774508.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

A number of models defined by linear restrictions on the cointegrating vectors are solved by reduced rank regression or slight modifications of it. We calculate the degrees of freedom for likelihood ... More


Local Regression and Likelihood

Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil

in Observed Brain Dynamics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195178081
eISBN:
9780199864829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Local regression and likelihood methods are nonparametric approaches for fitting regression functions and probability distributions to data. This chapter discusses the basic ideas behind these ... More


Statistics in Deterministic Sciences: An Introduction

Gidon Eshel

in Spatiotemporal Data Analysis

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128917
eISBN:
9781400840632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128917.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the relevance of statistics in deterministic science. While most physical phenomena of concern to natural sciences are governed by fundamental, mostly known, physics, their ... More


ISOCHRONOUS SYSTEMS ARE NOT RARE

Francesco Calogero

in Isochronous Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199535286
eISBN:
9780191715853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535286.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In Chapter 2 a simple trick—amounting to a change of variables—is introduced that modifies a large class of dynamical systems so that the (autonomous) ω-modified systems thereby obtained are ... More


Secrecy, Poetry, and Being-Free

Paul Kockelman

in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190636531
eISBN:
9780190636562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter asks two questions: What are some of the secrets of networks? And what might constitute their poetics, an aesthetic means of revealing their secrets? It leverages the relation between ... More


Lagrangian Theory of Constraints

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

One attractive feature of the Lagrangian method is the ease with which it solves so-called constraint problems. This chapter presents several different ways of solving such problems, with examples of ... More


Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe

Mariam Thalos

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917648
eISBN:
9780199980345
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917648.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

A venerable tradition in the metaphysics of science commends ontological reduction: the practice of analysis of theoretical entities into further and further proper parts, with the understanding that ... More


The Calculus of Variations

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter introduces the calculus of variations in the context of the finite-dimensional configuration space discussed previously. The calculus of variations is concerned with the comparison of ... More


A superconducting artificial atom with two internal degrees of freedom

O. Buisson

in Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 96, July 2011

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199681181
eISBN:
9780191761454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681181.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the construction of a superconducting artificial atom with two internal degrees of freedom by adding a large inductance to a dc-SQUID phase qubit loop, thus decoupling the ... More


Multiple Conceptions of Fundamentality

Mariam Thalos

in Without Hierarchy: The Scale Freedom of the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199917648
eISBN:
9780199980345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917648.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines implicit assumptions that philosophers make regarding fundamental ontology: atomism and the fundamentality of the micro scale (and so the fundamentality of physics). Along with ... More


Small Vibrations About Equilibrium

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

A number of interesting mechanical systems have one or more essentially stable equilibrium configurations. When disturbed slightly, they vibrate about equilibrium in characteristic patterns called ... More


Formalizing Measurement and Modeling: The Preinstitutional Society

Martin Shubik and Eric Smith

in The Guidance of an Enterprise Economy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262034630
eISBN:
9780262337540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034630.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

In this chapter we introduce the concepts of symmetry, dimensions and scaling, which are fundamental to a principled construction and interpretation of minimal models in this book. We also introduce ... More


Application to Free Will: Non-Causal Compatibilism

Scott Sehon

in Free Will and Action Explanation: A Non-Causal, Compatibilist Account

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780198758495
eISBN:
9780191818394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198758495.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter applies the teleological account of agency developed in the first part of the book to free will. The chapter argues that free actions should be identified with behaviors for which we are ... More


Hamilton’s Principle and Noether’s Theorem

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents extended forms of Hamilton’s principle and the phase space Hamilton’s principle based on the extended Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods developed earlier. It also discusses ... More


Reflex Contributions to the Control of Head Movement in the Lizard

Dave H. B. Wang and John H. Anderson

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

There are some tough problems in comprehending the control of head movements. The head-neck system is multijointed and the posture and the movement of the head can be controlled by distinct pairs of ... More


Muscle Behavior May Solve Motor Coordination Problems

Neville Hogan and Ferdinando A. Mussa-lvaldi

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Like many biologic systems, one of the differentiating features of the head and neck is its mechanical intricacy. The head-neck system includes approximately thirty muscles; each spans multiple ... More


The Gibbs Phase Rule: Phases

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Materials are made up of regions of space that are homogeneous in structure and properties, called phases. The number of different phases in a material depends on its temperature, pressure and ... More


Spin generation and manipulation based on spin–orbit interaction in semiconductors

J. Nitta

in Spin Current

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199600380
eISBN:
9780191775062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600380.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on the electron spin degree of freedom in semiconductor spintronics. Exploitation of the spin degree of freedom for the conduction carriers provides a key strategy for finding ... More


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