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How Defense ‘Spilled Over’ Into the CFSP: Western European Union (WEU) and the European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI)

J. Bryan Collester

in The State of the European Union: Risks, Reform, Resistance, and Revival

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297574
eISBN:
9780191598982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297572.003.0018
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

This chapter examines the EU’s decision to expand the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) to include defence. It begins by considering the significant developments in the WEU’s half-century of ... More


Ending 'East of Suez': The British Decision to Withdraw from Malaysia and Singapore 1964-1968

P. L. Pham

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199580361
eISBN:
9780191722691
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580361.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

In 1964, Britain's defence presence in Malaysia and Singapore was the largest and most expensive component of the country's world‐wide role. Yet within three and a half years, the Wilson Government ... More


Trouble in Pax Atlantica? the United States, Europe, and the Future of Multilateralism

David G. Haglund

in US Hegemony and International Organizations: The United States and Multilateral Institutions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199261437
eISBN:
9780191599309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261431.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Takes up the relationship between the US and regional multilateral organizations in Europe, in particular, NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and the European Union (specifically the ... More


The Battle for Withdrawal: April–July 1967

Phuong Pham

in Ending 'East of Suez': The British Decision to Withdraw from Malaysia and Singapore 1964-1968

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199580361
eISBN:
9780191722691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580361.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

Chapter 6 examines the period following April 1967, during which the fundamental issue shifted from whether or not Britain should withdraw from Malaysia and Singapore—which had now been decided—to ... More


The EU—Who are ‘We’ and Where is the Enemy?

Alexandra Gheciu

in Securing Civilization?: The EU, NATO and the OSCE in the Post-9/11 World

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199217229
eISBN:
9780191712449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217229.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that the risk of terrorist attacks by transnational groups has been systematically invoked by EU bodies to justify the launch (or expansion) of a broad set of risk-management ... More


Between ‘Paper’ and ‘Real Tigers’: Mao's View of Nuclear Weapons

Guang Zhang Shu

in Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy Since 1945

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780198294689
eISBN:
9780191601538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294689.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Mao Zedong originally saw a new China's struggle for security in terms of conventional warfare and in 1946 satirized the atomic bomb as a ’paper tiger’. Mao found it difficult to understand why the ... More


Duncan Sandys and the Creation of the All‐Regular Army

David French

in Army, Empire, and Cold War: The British Army and Military Policy, 1945-1971

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199548231
eISBN:
9780191739224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548231.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This chapter examines the efforts of the Churchill and Eden governments between 1952 and 1956 to rein in defence spending. It then analyses the impact of the development of the Hydrogen bomb on ... More


The Search for a Strategic Consensus in NATO: Adoption of Flexible Response

HELGA HAFTENDORN

in NATO and the Nuclear Revolution: A Crisis of Credibility 1966–67

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198280033
eISBN:
9780191684333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198280033.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter focuses on the period between the autumn of 1966 to the end of 1967, when the Ministerial Guidelines of May 1967 and the new strategic concept of flexible response (M/C 14/3) were ... More


Army, Empire, and Cold War: The British Army and Military Policy, 1945-1971

David French

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199548231
eISBN:
9780191739224
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548231.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

The veterans of the Fourteenth Army who fought in Burma between 1942 and 1945 called themselves ‘the forgotten army’. But that appellation could equally well be applied to the whole of the British ... More


Force Planning between Strategic Demands and National Constraints

HELGA HAFTENDORN

in NATO and the Nuclear Revolution: A Crisis of Credibility 1966–67

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198280033
eISBN:
9780191684333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198280033.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Amidst the crisis resulting from France’s withdrawal from NATO integration, the trilateral talks — which brought together representatives of the USA, UK, and Germany from October 1966 to April 1967 — ... More


The Sandys White Paper of 1957

Martins S. Navias

in Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

In 1957 the new Minister of Defence, Duncan Sandys, sought to mould British defence policy and force structure to reflect the exigencies of war in the thermonuclear age. His termination of national ... More


The EU's Foreign and Security Policy: Incremental Upgrading of Common Interests and the Effects of Institutionalized Cooperation

Nicole Alecu de Flers, Laura Chappell, and Patrick Müller

in The EU's Decision Traps: Comparing Policies

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199596225
eISBN:
9780191729140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596225.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, International Relations and Politics

As decision-making in European foreign and security policy has remained an intergovernmental process where unanimous decision-making is the norm, this policy field seems a likely case for becoming ... More


The Nuclear Deterrent, 1955–1956: Moving Towards Independence?

Martins S. Navias

in Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The debate over the importance of the Army and Navy in an age of thermonuclear weapons was accompanied by continued ambiguity concerning whether Britain was aiming at deterring the Soviet Union ... More


Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Martin S. Navias

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

During the 1950s nuclear weapons began to play an increasingly important role in Britain’s defence policy. The development of thermonuclear bombs and assessments of the great destruction that would ... More


The Services and War Planning in the Thermonuclear Era, 1955–1956

Martins S. Navias

in Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter seeks to outline Army and Navy perceptions of their roles and required capabilities in the thermonuclear era as they expressed themselves during the Eden administration. It discusses the ... More


The Classification of Defences

Fiona Leverick

in Killing in Self-Defence

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199283460
eISBN:
9780191712654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283460.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter examines the ways in which criminal defences can be classified, why classification might be important, and where self-defence fits into such a classification. It argues that defences ... More


The Historical Legacy

Martins S. Navias

in Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter traces the evolution of various significant issues in British nuclear strategic policy from the late 1940s until the mid-1950s. The object is to highlight the broader context and ... More


The Nuclear Dilemmas of the Alliance

HELGA HAFTENDORN

in NATO and the Nuclear Revolution: A Crisis of Credibility 1966–67

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198280033
eISBN:
9780191684333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198280033.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

With its effort to adapt NATO strategy to a changed strategic situation, the Atlantic Alliance was attempting to close the credibility gap in deterrence that emerged with the ‘delicate balance of ... More


Preventive War and US Foreign Policy

Marc Trachtenberg

in Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199233137
eISBN:
9780191716270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233137.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter discusses US policy on preventive war. Following September 11, 2001, the Bush Administration established a new national security policy that was no longer based on the principle of ... More


Introduction

Martins S. Navias

in Nuclear Weapons and British Strategic Planning, 1955–1958

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198277545
eISBN:
9780191684180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198277545.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of Minister of Defence Duncan Sandys’s famous Defence White Paper of 1957, which served to place recent strategic developments into a formulation ... More


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