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Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Michael Bergmann

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence, or perhaps it must be reliably formed, ... More


Scepticism Comes Alive

Bryan Frances

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The nagging voice of the sceptic has always been present in epistemology. Over the last thirty years or so, philosophers have thought of several promising ways to counter the radical sceptic. For ... More


Holism about Reasons

Sean McKeever and Michael Ridge

in Principled Ethics: Generalism as a Regulative Ideal

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199290659
eISBN:
9780191603617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199290652.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Particularists often try to draw support for their view from the alleged context sensitivity of reasons, and more specifically holism. According to holism about reasons, a consideration that is a ... More


Defeaters

Michael Bergmann

in Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter begins by explaining the different kinds of defeaters and no-defeater conditions. It argues for the inclusion of a no-defeater condition in the analysis of justification, and concludes ... More


Fallible A Priori Justification

Albert Casullo

in A Priori Justification

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195115055
eISBN:
9780199786190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195115058.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter articulates the requirements of fallible a priori justification. It distinguishes two senses of fallibility: c-fallibility, justification that does not guarantee truth; and ... More


Refutation of the Reformed Objection

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The aim of Chapter 4 is to decide whether Alvin Plantinga’s reformed objection to natural theology is successful for modern, well-educated Christian believers. Although there is a solution to the ... More


World Creation when there are Prime Worlds

Bruce Langtry

in God, the Best, and Evil

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199238798
eISBN:
9780191716485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238798.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

There is a presumption that in bringing about the better overall outcome one acts in the better way. But the presumption can be defeated by special circumstances. This chapter argues that if there ... More


‘S knows that A’

Keith Hossack

in The Metaphysics of Knowledge

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199206728
eISBN:
9780191709777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206728.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter expounds the central thesis that knowledge is a relation of a mind to a fact. The discussion proceeds as follows. Section 1 argues that knowledge is not a propositional attitude. Section ... More


Rejecting Transmission

Jennifer Lackey

in Learning from Words: Testimony as a Source of Knowledge

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199219162
eISBN:
9780191711824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219162.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The focus of this chapter is a view dominating discussion in the current epistemological literature — the Belief View of Testimony — according to which transmission lies at the heart of testimonial ... More


Misleading Defeaters

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter proposes a game in a similar vein to the Gettier game: when a subject has a true belief but seems not to have knowledge, it looks for some key aspect of the situation about which the ... More


Epistemological Objections to Materialism 1

Robert C. Koons

in The Waning of Materialism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199556182
eISBN:
9780191721014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556182.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that materialism is vulnerable to two kinds of epistemological objections: transcendental arguments, that show that materialism is incompatible with the very possibility of ... More


Advanced Topics: Acceptance Rules

John L. Pollock

in Nomic Probability and the Foundations of Induction

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195060133
eISBN:
9780197560129
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195060133.003.0014
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

There once was a man who wrote a book. He was very careful in his reasoning, and was confident of each claim that he made. With some display of pride, he ... More


Disarming the Live Sceptical Threat

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The live sceptic’s threat is disarmed by taking away their sword: making the factors that threaten one’s beliefs lose their punch without meeting them head on. In this way, the mere mortal need not ... More


Do Live Sceptical Hypotheses Pose Real Threats?

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The so-called “No Threat” solutions claim that the epistemic factors that the live sceptic claims defeat our claims to knowledge are too feeble to mount a threat. On the face of it, the epistemic ... More


Introduction: When a Sceptical Hypothesis is Live

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book’s topic is introduced via a brief discussion of what is often found objectionable in traditional forms of scepticism. Some of the more interesting features of Live Scepticism, the theory ... More


When Experts Make Mistakes

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The main themes of the book are introduced in a preliminary and intuitive way.


How Live Hypotheses Sabotage Knowledge

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The argument template used to generate the new sceptical arguments is presented. In doing so, what it means for a hypothesis to be “live”, what it means for someone to be a “mere mortal” with regard ... More


The First Live Sceptical Hypothesis

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The argument template used to generate new sceptical arguments was presented in chapter 3. In this chapter, the template is used to generate the first live sceptical argument by plugging ‘No one ... More


Additional Sceptical Hypotheses

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The argument template of chapter 3 is taken together with other live hypotheses to generate other kinds of live scepticism. For instance, one can focus on error theories with regard to colour, or ... More


The Sceptical Solution

Bryan Frances

in Scepticism Comes Alive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199282135
eISBN:
9780191602917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282137.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is argued that most of the counterintuitive elements of traditional sceptical theories do not apply to the live sceptical theories, and that the live sceptic’s argument is identical in form to ... More


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