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A Short Introduction to the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

S. Matthew Liao

in Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780190905033
eISBN:
9780190905071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190905033.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This introduction outlines in section I.1 some of the key issues in the study of the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) and proposes ways to take these discussions further. Section I.2 discusses ... More


Computations by different types of brain, and by artificial neural systems

Edmund T. Rolls

in Brain Computations: What and How

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198871101
eISBN:
9780191914157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198871101.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

In this Chapter a comparison is made between computations in the brain and computations performed in computers. This is intended to be helpful to those engineers, computer scientists, AI specialists ... More


Fundamentals of Machine Learning

Thomas P. Trappenberg

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198828044
eISBN:
9780191883873
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828044.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Machine learning is exploding, both in research and for industrial applications. This book aims to be a brief introduction to this area given the importance of this topic in many disciplines, from ... More


Neural networks and Keras

Thomas P. Trappenberg

in Fundamentals of Machine Learning

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198828044
eISBN:
9780191883873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828044.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the basic operation of an artificial neural network which is the major paradigm of deep learning. The name derives from an analogy to a biological brain. The discussion begins ... More


Input Recognition

Otmar Hilliges

in Computational Interaction

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198799603
eISBN:
9780191839832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799603.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Sensing of user input lies at the core of HCI research. Deciding which input mechanisms to use and how to implement them such that they work in a way that is easy to use, robust to various ... More


Eating Text

Gill Burbridge

in Doing Text: Media After the Subject

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9781911325031
eISBN:
9781800342576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781911325031.003.0009
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter examines the act of eating text. The approach to learning and enquiry explored here is, in part, an act of resistance and re-appropriation, genuinely committed to challenging and ... More


The Future of the Hypothesis: The Big Data Mindset Versus the Robot Scientist

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter evaluates two possible futures for the hypothesis in scientific thinking in the age of Big Data. In one, the Big Data Mindset entirely shuns hypotheses and the scientific goal of ... More


Data Sciences

Stephen K. Reed

in Cognitive Skills You Need for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197529003
eISBN:
9780197529034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197529003.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Machine learning is a highly influential field that has made major contributions to the increased effectiveness of artificial intelligence. Machine learning utilizes different methods, four of which ... More


Brain Computations: What and How

Edmund T. Rolls

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780198871101
eISBN:
9780191914157
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198871101.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

The subject of this book is how the brain works. In order to understand this, it is essential to know what is computed by different brain systems; and how the computations are performed. The aim of ... More


Mimicking the Brain

Chris Bleakley

in Poems That Solve Puzzles: The History and Science of Algorithms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198853732
eISBN:
9780191888168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853732.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 11 traces the history of artificial neural networks (ANNs) from humble beginnings in the 1940s to their monumental successes in the 21st century. ANNs are algorithms which mimic the behaviour ... More


Brain Theory: History

James A. Anderson

in After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and Machines

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199357789
eISBN:
9780190675264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357789.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

What form would a brain theory take? Would it be short and punchy, like Maxwell’s Equations? Or with a clear goal but achieved by a community of mechanisms—local theories—to attain that goal, like ... More


Becoming a Digital Dictatorship

Jennifer Pan

in Welfare for Autocrats: How Social Assistance in China Cares for its Rulers

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190087425
eISBN:
9780190087463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190087425.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, International Relations and Politics

The conclusion considers how China’s pursuit of political order through preemptive control changes in a digital context of rapidly growing data, computing power, and advances in machine learning ... More


Exploring Robotic Minds: Actions, Symbols, and Consciousness as Self-Organizing Dynamic Phenomena

Jun Tani

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190281069
eISBN:
9780190281083
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190281069.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

How do “minds” work? In Exploring Robotic Minds: Actions, Symbols, and Consciousness as Self-Organizing Dynamic Phenomena, Professor Jun Tani reviews key experiments within his own pioneering ... More


Explainable AI

Stephen K. Reed

in Cognitive Skills You Need for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197529003
eISBN:
9780197529034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197529003.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Deep connectionist learning has resulted in very impressive accomplishments, but it is unclear how it achieves its results. A dilemma in using the output of machine learning is that the best ... More


To Believe in Siri: A Critical Analysis of Voice Assistants

Simone Natale

in Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.003.0007
Subject:
History, Cultural History

AI voice assistants are based on software that enters into dialogue with users through speech in order to provide replies to the users’ queries or execute tasks such as sending emails, searching on ... More


Cortical Memory

Dana H. Ballard

in Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028615
eISBN:
9780262323819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028615.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

The primary way the brain responds quickly is to store previous experiences in a vast tabular format that allows responses to be accessed quickly. The exact format of the memory is probably a ... More


Artificial intelligence, explanations, trust, responsibility, and justice

Ronald M. Baecker

in Computers and Society: Modern Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198827085
eISBN:
9780191917318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827085.003.0018
Subject:
Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction

There have been several challenges to our view of our position and purpose as human beings. The scientist Charles Darwin’s research demonstrated ... More


Triggering Backlash

Jennifer Pan

in Welfare for Autocrats: How Social Assistance in China Cares for its Rulers

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190087425
eISBN:
9780190087463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190087425.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, International Relations and Politics

This chapter captures the backlash—increased protests and lower legitimacy—triggered by prioritizing Dibao for targeted populations. The survey of 100 neighborhoods shows that when targeted ... More


Modeling self and others

Josh Bongard

in Living machines: A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199674923
eISBN:
9780191842702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199674923.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Development

Embodied cognition is the view that intelligence arises out of the interaction between an agent’s body and its environment. Taking such a view generates novel scientific hypotheses about biological ... More


Conclusion: Our Sophisticated Selves

Simone Natale

in Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.003.0008
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The historical trajectory examined in this book demonstrates that humans’ reactions to machines that are programmed to simulate intelligent behaviors represent a constitutive element of what is ... More


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