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Reductive Logic and Proof-search: Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

David J. Pym and Eike Ritter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526339
eISBN:
9780191712012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526339.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This a research study about logic. Logic is both part of and has roles in many disciplines, including inter alia, mathematics, computing, and philosophy. The topic covered here — the mathematical ... More


Reasons

Lance J. Rips

in Lines of Thought: Central Concepts in Cognitive Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195183054
eISBN:
9780199865109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183054.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter attempts to make the case for the possibility that a distinct cognitive process is responsible for our ability to recognize entailments as logically necessary relations. It shows that ... More


Reasoning Imperialism

Lance J. Rips

in Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147667
eISBN:
9780199785865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147669.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Although people can recognize and make deductively valid arguments on occasion, one perspective is that there might be no psychologically valid distinction between the deductive correctness of a ... More


The Indispensability of Principles

Tom Tomlinson

in Methods in Medical Ethics: Critical Perspectives

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195161243
eISBN:
9780199950317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161243.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

We are naturally attracted to the idea that moral reasoning uses rules, as premises in a deductive argument. This picture provides a straightforward way of responding to the demand for reasons ... More


Life forms: A Keyword Entry

Stefan Helmreich and Sophia Roosth

in Sounding the Limits of Life: Essays in the Anthropology of Biology and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164809
eISBN:
9781400873869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164809.003.0002
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines how natural philosophers and scientists in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries employed the term “life form.” It asks how life came to have a form, where the ... More


The Local Conception of Mathematical Evidence: Proof, Computation, and Logic

Michael D. Resnik

in Mathematics as a Science of Patterns

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250142
eISBN:
9780191598296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250142.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The fact that mathematics is ordinarily practised as an autonomous science with its own, peculiar type of evidence constituted mainly by deductive reasoning (proofs and computations) is often taken ... More


Descartes's New Theory of Reasoning

David Owen

in Hume's Reason

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252602
eISBN:
9780191598159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252602.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Descartes rejected syllogism and its associated formal account of deductive reasoning. One of his main reasons was his concern for truth, and the ability to recognize new truths and to distinguish ... More


Logic and the Western concept of mind

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater

in Bayesian Rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198524496
eISBN:
9780191584923
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524496.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the Western conception of the mind. It traces two viewpoints of the basis of people’s ability to carry out ‘deductive’ reasoning tasks, one based on logic and ... More


Deductive Justification

Neil MacCormick

in Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198763840
eISBN:
9780191695230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198763840.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

It is sufficient to produce a single example of purely deductive justification to demonstrate the possibility of such justification. Thus, the case of Daniels and Daniels v. R. ... More


Two aspects of reasoning competence: A challenge for current accounts and a call for new conceptual tools

Guy Politzer and Jean-François Bonnefon

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The initial enquiry into human formal deductive abilities has been more or less fulfilled, yielding a moderately positive answer (people do have some degree of formal competence), together with two ... More


For Example and Against

Geoffrey Lloyd

in Ancient Worlds, Modern Reflections: Philosophical Perspectives on Greek and Chinese Science and Culture

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199270163
eISBN:
9780191602276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270163.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

How are examples used in reasoning in ancient Greek and Chinese philosophy and science and how were such uses evaluated? Some Greeks, such as Aristotle, downgraded the appeal to examples in ... More


The Limits of Principles

Tom Tomlinson

in Methods in Medical Ethics: Critical Perspectives

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195161243
eISBN:
9780199950317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161243.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

In this chapter I canvas the reasons commonly given for claiming that principles can’t be all there is to moral reasoning: there is no conclusive agreement on a single normative theory; there is ... More


Rhetoric and The Rule of Law: A Theory of Legal Reasoning

Neil MacCormick

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199571246
eISBN:
9780191713064
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571246.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

When cases come before courts can we predict the outcome? Is legal reasoning rationally persuasive, working within a formal structure and using recognisable forms of arguments to produce predictable ... More


Mathematics Transformed, Again

Danielle Macbeth

in Realizing Reason: A Narrative of Truth and Knowing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780198704751
eISBN:
9780191774232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704751.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In the nineteenth century, a new form of mathematical practice emerged, led above all by Riemann in Germany but also exemplified in the work of Galois, Dedekind, Hilbert, and others. Turning their ... More


Good Science, Bad Science, or No Science At All?

Geoffrey E. Hill

in Ivorybill Hunters: Search for Proof in a Flooded Wilderness

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195323467
eISBN:
9780199773855
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323467.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter steps away from the particulars and discusses how ivorybill searches are and are not scientific undertakings. Science is defined as the testing of hypotheses that explain natural ... More


Thinking Process in Legal Research: Diverse Models

P. Ishwara Bhat

in Idea and Methods of Legal Research

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780199493098
eISBN:
9780199098316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199493098.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

The second chapter discusses the way and means of carrying out the thinking process in legal research. Thinking is always in response to memory or a situation that the mind comes across. The three ... More


Questions about the Nature and Value of Reasoning

Magdalena Balcerak Jackson and Brendan Balcerak Jackson

in Reasoning: New Essays on Theoretical and Practical Thinking

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198791478
eISBN:
9780191876844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198791478.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter provides a brief and informal introduction to some of the central philosophical questions about reasoning. Among the questions discussed are: What distinguishes reasoning from other ... More


Reasoning

Phil Johnson-Laird

in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199228768
eISBN:
9780191696336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examimes changes and developments in the study of reasoning. It discusses the recognition and acceptance of the notion that reasoning depends on constructing mental models of situations, ... More


Blind Reasoning: Paul Boghossian

Paul Boghossian and Timothy Williamson

in Debating the A Priori

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198851707
eISBN:
9780191886317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851707.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The essay asks under what conditions deductive reasoning transmits justification from its premises to its conclusion. It argues that both standard externalist and standard internalist accounts of ... More


Information Sciences

Stephen K. Reed

in Cognitive Skills You Need for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197529003
eISBN:
9780197529034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197529003.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The information sciences provide tools for deductive reasoning to supplement the classifications made by the data sciences and the explanations made by explanatory models. Formal ontologies provide a ... More


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