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Reductive Logic and Proof-search: Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

David J. Pym and Eike Ritter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526339
eISBN:
9780191712012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526339.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This a research study about logic. Logic is both part of and has roles in many disciplines, including inter alia, mathematics, computing, and philosophy. The topic covered here — the mathematical ... More


Logical Pluralism

JC Beall and Greg Restall

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199288403
eISBN:
9780191700491
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288403.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Consequence is at the heart of logic; an account of consequence, of what follows from what, offers a vital tool in the evaluation of arguments. Since philosophy itself proceeds by way of argument and ... More


Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

David Christensen

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Are rational beliefs constrained by formal logic? This book argues that if beliefs are seen in a binary way (either one believes a proposition or one doesn't), then the standard constraints of ... More


Naming God

Francesca Aran Murphy

in God Is Not a Story: Realism Revisited

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199219285
eISBN:
9780191711664
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219285.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter is about arguments for the existence of God. It shows how grammatical Thomists like Herbert McCabe and Denys Turner make proving that God exists into a matter of proving that it is ... More


The Distinction Between ‘Is’ and ‘Ought’

Henry Sidgwick

in Essays on Ethics and Method

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250234
eISBN:
9780191598432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250231.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Taking ‘what ought to be’ to include both what is commonly judged to be ‘good’ and what is commonly judged to be ‘right’, that is to say, ‘the duty’ of a person, Sidgwick observes that there is a ... More


Abductive Reasoning

Jon Kolko

in Exposing the Magic of Design: A Practitioner’s Guide to the Methods and Theory of Synthesis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744336
eISBN:
9780199894710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744336.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter explains how abductive reasoning works, comparing and contrasting this form of logic with both deductive and inductive logic. It is then described in the context of creative problem ... More


DEDUCTIVE CONSTRAINTS: PROBLEM CASES, POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

David Christensen

in Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Develops an extended version of the Preface Paradox to show how the counter-intuitive binary beliefs mandated by deductive consistency and deductive closure can cascade into massive irrationality. ... More


Imam ash‐Shâfi' î: The Deductive Approach

Tariq Ramadan

in Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195331714
eISBN:
9780191720987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331714.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter focuses on Imâm ash-Shâfi'î. Imâm ash-Shâfi'î developed a definition of Islamic law and jurisprudence (fiqh), which became a reference for specialists over and above the differences ... More


DISCOVERING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPSH

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

There are two main proposals for discovering causal relationships: a hypothetico-deductive and an inductive approach. Neither account is fully satisfactory. Various specific approaches are discussed, ... More


EPISTEMIC CAUSALITY

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter develops an epistemic theory of causality. The origins of such a theory may be found in the writings of Kant and Ramsey. According to the epistemic theory, we think in terms of cause and ... More


Life forms: A Keyword Entry

Stefan Helmreich and Sophia Roosth

in Sounding the Limits of Life: Essays in the Anthropology of Biology and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164809
eISBN:
9781400873869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164809.003.0002
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines how natural philosophers and scientists in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries employed the term “life form.” It asks how life came to have a form, where the ... More


ARGUMENTS FOR DEDUCTIVE COGENCY

David Christensen

in Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Examines and rejects several arguments claiming that the fundamental purposes of binary belief requires deductive cogency. The strongest such argument claims that if deductive cogency were not ... More


A Streetcar Named (among Other Things) Proof: From Storytelling to Geometry, via Poetry and Rhetoric

Apostolos Doxiadis

Apostolos Doxiadis and Barry Mazur (eds)

in Circles Disturbed: The Interplay of Mathematics and Narrative

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149042
eISBN:
9781400842681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149042.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter traces the origins of deductive mathematical proof in classical Greece by drawing on the tradition of Jean-Pierre Vernant and G. E. R. Lloyd. It first considers how certain rhetorical ... More


Philosophical Theories

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses attempts by Aristotle, Hesse, Mill and others to deal with two problems: (1) finding criteria for evaluating analogical arguments, and (2) providing some form of philosophical ... More


Deductivism Visited and Revisited

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Attacks explanatory deductivism, the view that all genuine explanations have the form of a correct deductive argument. The view has strong intuitive appeal to many philosophers. The author offers a ... More


Bringing Policy Issue Substance Back In

John S. Lapinski

in The Substance of Representation: Congress, American Political Development, and Lawmaking

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137810
eISBN:
9781400848638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137810.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter explains how policy issue substance could play a revitalizing role for multiple subfields in American politics, particularly congressional studies and American political development. It ... More


Reasoning Imperialism

Lance J. Rips

in Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147667
eISBN:
9780199785865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147669.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Although people can recognize and make deductively valid arguments on occasion, one perspective is that there might be no psychologically valid distinction between the deductive correctness of a ... More


Methodological Considerations

Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil

in Observed Brain Dynamics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195178081
eISBN:
9780199864829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Practicing neuroscientists often view philosophical or conceptual considerations with suspicion. The importance of laboratory experiments should not be belittled; to date, neuroscience remains a ... More


An Introduction to Newton's Scientific Method

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter includes some historical background on Astronomy, mechanics and physical causes, as well as an overview of Newton’s background framework and his theoretical concept of a centripetal ... More


Mathematics

Leonid Zhmud

in Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199289318
eISBN:
9780191741371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199289318.003.0008
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

This chapter turns from Pythagorean religion to Pythagorean science, primarily to mathematics. It shows that the similarities between Oriental calculations and Greek geometry are delusory, while ... More


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