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Analogy and Symmetry

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter has two purposes. First, it explores the connection between analogical reasoning and symmetry to provide a second justification for the argument form, independent of the one offered in ... More


 Laws and their Confirmation

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

The remaining chapters are devoted to various philosophical applications of ranking theory. The first goal is to understand natural modalities as covertly epistemological modalities by a kind of ... More


Bayesian Projectibility

Brian Skyrms

in From Zeno to Arbitrage: Essays on Quantity, Coherence, and Induction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199652808
eISBN:
9780191745829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652808.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Generalizations of de Finetti’s theorem are the key to a proper view of inductive logic. They go far beyond the original scope of coin flipping. Abstract ergodic theory provides a very general ... More


Subjective Probability and Statistical Physics

Jos Uffink

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines subjectivist interpretations of probabilities in statistical physics. It provides an introduction to subjectivism about probabilities and its main tenets by tracing its history, ... More


The Principal Principle and Probability in the Many‐Worlds Interpretation

Rüdiger Schack

in Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, and Reality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199560561
eISBN:
9780191721380
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560561.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In the decision-theoretic approach to the many worlds interpretation due to Deutsch and Wallace, probabilities are taken to be Bayesian degrees of belief. Their connection to the quantum mechanical ... More


Towards a New Epistemology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The underground river of probabilism, slowly growing in force over three centuries, burst forth above ground in the twentieth century and brought new hope for epistemology. Probabilism sees its ... More


Indeterminism and Probability

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Pure indeterminism is simply the denial of determinism; a theory may augment this with models in which the uncertain events have definite probabilities. De Finetti's representation theorem, which ... More


Exchangeability and its ramifications

A. Philip Dawid

in Bayesian Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695607
eISBN:
9780191744167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695607.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Bruno de Finetti's concept of exchangeability and its associated mathematics form one of the cornerstones of subjectivist Bayesian inference, providing Bayesians with a good reason to take seriously ... More


Quantum Bayesianism 1: The Proposal

Christopher G. Timpson

in Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199296460
eISBN:
9780191741791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296460.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The Quantum Bayesian view of Caves, Fuchs and Schack is presented, this being a view according to which quantum state assignments are purely personal and subjective, just as probability assignments ... More


Observables and models: exchangeability and the inductive argument

Micheal Goldstein

in Bayesian Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695607
eISBN:
9780191744167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695607.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter first provides an elementary and self-contained account of the notion of exchangeability and the derivation of Bruno de Finetti's representation theorem, which shows how to construct ... More


From No Drop to Probabilism

Richard Pettigrew

in Accuracy and the Laws of Credence

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198732716
eISBN:
9780191797019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732716.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins Part I of the book, which treats the accuracy argument for Probabilism. This chapter generalizes the argument given in the Introduction in favour of the principle No Drop. It ... More


Nonparametric Bayesian machine learning and signal processing

Max A. Little

in Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Data Science, Algorithms, and Computational Statistics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198714934
eISBN:
9780191879180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198714934.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy, Mathematical Physics

We have seen that stochastic processes play an important foundational role in a wide range of methods in DSP. For example, we treat a discrete-time signal as a Gaussian process, and thereby obtain ... More


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