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Exploring the Universe With a Microscope

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Results from the LHC can expand our knowledge of the early stages of the universe. The connection between the world of particle physics and the structure of our universe is probably one of the most ... More


Loose Ends

Michael Munowitz

in Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195167375
eISBN:
9780199787104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This excursion into physical law concludes with a peek over the horizon, a glimpse into the knowable unknown. Three principal issues are considered: (1) the origin of the universe, currently modeled ... More


The homogeneous and isotropic universe

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The universe, when observed on distance scales ≳100 Mpc, is homogeneous and isotropic. Hubble's discovery that the universe is expanding suggests strongly that it had a beginning. The estimate of the ... More


Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

Michael Munowitz

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195167375
eISBN:
9780199787104
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book interprets the book of nature for curious readers of all sorts, but especially for those looking to appreciate the power and beauty of physics without having to grapple with the ... More


From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability

Peter Coles

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567622
eISBN:
9780191718250
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567622.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Cosmology has undergone a revolution in recent years. The exciting interplay between astronomy and fundamental physics has led to dramatic revelations, including the existence of the dark matter and ... More


Relic Neutrinos

Carlo Giunti and Chung W. Kim

in Fundamentals of Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198508717
eISBN:
9780191708862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508717.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the physics of relic neutrinos with detailed treatment of neutrino decoupling, electron-positron annihilation, neutrino temperature, energy density of light massive neutrinos, ... More


Wisdom’s World: Cosmos as Playhouse in Proverbs 8:22–31

William P. Brown

in The Seven Pillars of Creation: The Bible, Science, and the Ecology of Wonder

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199730797
eISBN:
9780199777075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730797.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, Theology

Creation according to Wisdom is this chapter’s focus. Proverbs 8:22-31 marks the climax of Wisdom’s discourse, whose aim is to establish her preeminent authority and status. In this text, Wisdom is ... More


Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation

Robert Hudson

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199303281
eISBN:
9780199367627
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199303281.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The main goal of Seeing Things is to criticize a common way of arguing called ‘robustness reasoning’. With robustness reasoning, one claims that an observation report is more likely to be true (or, ... More


The Dark Side of the Universe

Pauline Gagnon

in Who Cares about Particle Physics?: Making Sense of the Higgs Boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198783244
eISBN:
9780191826269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198783244.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The Standard Model works incredibly well but applies to a mere 5% of the content of the Universe; 27% of the Universe is made of a strange type of matter, something absolutely mysterious called dark ... More


Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Robert Hudson

in Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199303281
eISBN:
9780199367627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199303281.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In this chapter, two further historical case studies are examined. The first involves key telescopic observations that, for the astrophysical community, firmly established the existence of dark ... More


The universe: its structure and evolution

A. J. Leggett

in The Problems of Physics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211241
eISBN:
9780191706837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211241.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts by emphasizing that we can construct a picture of the universe as a whole only by extrapolating the laws of physics as we know them on earth to conditions almost unimaginably ... More


Believing the Big Bang

Peter Coles

in From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567622
eISBN:
9780191718250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567622.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Cosmology aims to build a coherent unified description of the entire universe as a single system. This means not just the disposition of everything that exists at a particular time, but also how this ... More


Most of the Universe is Missing!

Nicholas Mee

in The Cosmic Mystery Tour

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831860
eISBN:
9780191869785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831860.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Most of the matter in the universe exists in an unknown form called dark matter. All estimates of the mass of galaxies and galaxy clusters suggest they contain far more matter than is visible to us ... More


Alternative Gravitational Theories

John W. Moffat

in The Shadow of the Black Hole

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190650728
eISBN:
9780197517383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650728.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There have been many proposed modifications of gravitational theory, beginning with Einstein’s general relativity, modifying Newtonian gravity, and Weyl’s attempt at unifying gravity and ... More


Relational Blockworld Approach to Unification and Quantum Gravity

Michael Silberstein, W.M. Stuckey, and Timothy McDevitt

in Beyond the Dynamical Universe: Unifying Block Universe Physics and Time as Experienced

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198807087
eISBN:
9780191844850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198807087.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, History of Physics

The main thread of chapter 6 prompts the need for quantum gravity (QG) and introduces the RBW approach to QG, unification in particle physics, dark matter, and dark energy. The details of RBW’s ... More


The Dark Side

Steven E. Vigdor

in Signatures of the Artist: The Vital Imperfections That Make Our Universe Habitable

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198814825
eISBN:
9780191852954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814825.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 6 deals with the remaining mysteries in cosmology—dark matter, dark energy, and inflationary expansion—and the experiments aimed at solving them. It reviews the evidence for dark matter, and ... More


Dark Matter

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0032
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

What we know or do not know about dark matter. The evidence for its existence, first found by Fritz Zwicky. The “virial theorem” and the Coma cluster. The rotation curves of galaxies. Galactic ... More


Introduction and Cosmological Background

Abraham Loeb and Steven R. Furlanetto

in The First Galaxies in the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144917
eISBN:
9781400845606
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144917.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes the essential aspects of the modern cosmological paradigm for understanding the formation of the first galaxies in the Universe. The basic question that cosmology attempts to ... More


Cosmology

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Einstein's Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity - Derived, Explained, and Appraised

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199669912
eISBN:
9780191744488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669912.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Einstein was the first one to apply GR to the study of cosmology. Spatial homogeneity and isotropy leads to the Robertson–Walker spacetime with the overall scale factor a ... More


Nonbaryonic Dark Matter

P. J. E. Peebles

in Cosmology's Century: An Inside History of Our Modern Understanding of the Universe

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780691196022
eISBN:
9780691201665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196022.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the particle physicists' considerations of nonbaryonic matter. It takes into account the condition that if this nonbaryonic matter were produced in the hot early stages of ... More


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