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Epilogue

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that Earth as a planet has the “right stuff” to be an oxygen-accumulating planet. Having the right stuff, however, is ... More


Symbiotic Interactions

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Symbiosis, where different species live together for prolonged periods, is ubiquitous and extremely important in coral reefs. The most important symbiosis is between corals and the microalgae ... More


Life before Oxygen

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the nature of life on ancient Earth before the evolution of oxygen production. It suggests that the Earth enjoyed an active and diverse biosphere well before the evolution of ... More


Cyanobacteria: The Great Liberators

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the importance of cyanobacteria. The evolution of cyanobacteria brought the biological production of oxygen to Earth for the first time. This led, in turn, to the eventual ... More


The Early History of Atmospheric Oxygen: Biological Evidence

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the history of atmospheric oxygen through geologic time. One of the giants in this discussion is Vladimir Vernadsky 1863–1945), a Ukranian mineralogist turned geochemist and ... More


The Great Oxidation

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter deals with the “great oxidation event” (GOE), which represents a quantum shift in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. It suggests that the GOE represents the evolution of ... More


Climate and Hydrologic Variations and Implications for Lake and Stream Ecological Response in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

Kathleen A. Welch and W. Berry Lyons

in Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195150599
eISBN:
9780197561881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195150599.003.0019
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Because polar regions may amplify what would be considered small to moderate climate changes at lower latitudes, Weller (1998) proposed that the monitoring ... More


Century- to Millennial-Scale Climate Change and Ecosystem Response in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

Andrew G. Fountain and W. Berry Lyons

in Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195150599
eISBN:
9780197561881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195150599.003.0031
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

The view of climate change during the Pleistocene and the Holocene was very much different a mere decade ago. With the collection and detailed analyses of ... More


Ice surface environments

Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Tranter Martyn, and Hodson Andrew J.

in The Ecology of Snow and Ice Environments

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199583072
eISBN:
9780191774669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583072.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on ice shelves, supraglacial habitats (snow, supraglacial lakes, cryoconites holes), and other debris habitats including the ice margin. It discusses the nature of mat ... More


Sea and lake ice

Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Tranter Martyn, and Hodson Andrew J.

in The Ecology of Snow and Ice Environments

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199583072
eISBN:
9780191774669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583072.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Sea ice covers a significant area of the polar regions, particularly in winter. This chapter discusses the formation and nature of different types of sea ice. The biological makeup of sea ice ... More


Linking Soil Biodiversity and Human Health: Do Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Contribute to Food Nutrition?

Pedro M. Antunes, Philipp Franken, Dietmar Schwarz, Matthias C. Rillig, Marco Cosme, Martha Scott, and Miranda M. Hart

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Soil microbes are well known to improve plant nutrition. However, there is little information on whether these effects can be beneficial for human health. Using the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ... More


Carbon and oxygen

Tim Lenton and Andrew Watson

in Revolutions that made the Earth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199587049
eISBN:
9780191775031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587049.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter goes back 2.7 billion years to touch upon a time when all the animals on Earth evolve from their common ancestor. With the evolution and spread of the cyanobacteria comes an Earth system ... More


Reading the Rocks: What We Can Infer from Geology

Franklin M. Harold

in In Search of Cell History: The Evolution of Life's Building Blocks

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174143
eISBN:
9780226174310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174310.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The discovery of fossil bacteria sixty years ago quadrupled the length of life's known history, and initiated the search for geological traces of cell evolution. Earth has hosted life for as long as ... More


Microbial primary production and phototrophy

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter is focused on the most important process in the biosphere, primary production, the turning of carbon dioxide into organic material by higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... More


Symbiotic interactions

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, Graham M. Pilling, and Nicholas A. J. Graham

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198787341
eISBN:
9780191829420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198787341.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Symbiosis, where different species live together for prolonged periods, is ubiquitous and extremely important on coral reefs. The most important symbiosis is between corals and the microalgae ... More


Water Contaminants

Kenneth P. Cantor, Craig M. Steinmaus, Mary H. Ward, and Laura E. Beane Freeman

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Humans have long recognized the hazards of microbial contamination of drinking water. Only since the 1960s, however, have epidemiologic studies systematically examined whether naturally occurring ... More


The Case for Phosphorus

David L. Kirchman

in Dead Zones: The Loss of Oxygen from Rivers, Lakes, Seas, and the Ocean

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780197520376
eISBN:
9780197520406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197520376.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

As this chapter explains, one approach to evaluate nutrient limitation is to compare nutrient concentrations with the Redfield ratio. Alfred Redfield had no formal background in oceanography, yet he ... More


Why is the Sea Blue?

Thomas N. Sherratt and David M. Wilkinson

in Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199548606
eISBN:
9780191917769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199548606.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

One answer to this chapter’s question is straightforward and based on high-school physics. The early SCUBA divers quickly discovered that if they took underwater colour photographs, even if they ... More


Biogeochemical Fluxes across Piedmont Slopes of the Jornada Basin

Athol D. Abrahams and Melissa Neave

in Structure and Function of a Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem: The Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Site

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117769
eISBN:
9780197561201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117769.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

This chapter is an overview of recent studies of the movement of water, sediment, and nutrients across a principle piedmont slope, or bajada, of the Jornada Basin. Bajadas are extensive, gently ... More


Eolian Processes on the Jornada Basin

Dale Gillette and H. Curtis Monger

in Structure and Function of a Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem: The Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Site

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117769
eISBN:
9780197561201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117769.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

In arid and semiarid lands, soil erosion by wind is an important process that affects both the surface features and the biological potential of the ecosystem. The eolian flux of soil nutrients into ... More


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