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Disruptions to Global Internet Governance

Laura DeNardis

in The Internet in Everything: Freedom and Security in a World with No Off Switch

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780300233070
eISBN:
9780300249330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300233070.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter looks at provocations for the future of Internet governance. Policy entanglements with previously distinct spheres—consumer safety, systems of democracy, cryptocurrency, and ... More


Money Code Space: Hidden Power in Bitcoin, Blockchain, and Decentralisation

Jack Parkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780197515075
eISBN:
9780197515112
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197515075.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Economy

Newly emerging cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology present a challenging research problem in the field of digital politics and economics. Bitcoin—the first widely implemented cryptocurrency ... More


Global Currencies and Domestic Regulation: Embedding through Enabling?

Georgios Dimitropoulos

in Regulating Blockchain: Techno-Social and Legal Challenges

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198842187
eISBN:
9780191878206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842187.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter identifies cryptocurrencies and other virtual currencies as global currencies that could have a major impact on national jurisdictions. Regulation concerning cryptocurrencies can be ... More


Counting Bitcoin

Ed Finn

in What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035927
eISBN:
9780262338837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035927.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming Languages

This chapter uses the growing dominance of algorithmic high frequency trading in finance to frame a reading of Bitcoin and related cryptocurrencies. By defining the unit of exchange through ... More


Blockchain and Payment Systems: A Tale about Re-Intermediation

Agnieszka Janczuk-Gorywoda

in Regulating Blockchain: Techno-Social and Legal Challenges

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198842187
eISBN:
9780191878206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842187.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Company and Commercial Law

Bitcoin—the first virtual currency based on blockchain technology—was born out of an anarcho-libertarian dream to create a monetary system that—by relying on ‘trustless trust’—would be completely ... More


Dogecoin

Sarah Jeong

Bill Maurer and Lana Swartz (eds)

in Paid: Tales of Dongles, Checks, and Other Money Stuff

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035750
eISBN:
9780262338332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035750.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Dogecoin—a Bitcoin-like cryptocurrency notable for its use of a meme of a bemused shibainu dog—is perhaps one of the most absurd and most adorable money experiments. The community around it was known ... More


Next Steps

Chris Bleakley

in Poems That Solve Puzzles: The History and Science of Algorithms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198853732
eISBN:
9780191888168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853732.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 13 investigates cryptocurrency and quantum computing. Bitcoin – the world’s first cryptocurrency - was released by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. Unlike conventional money, Bitcoin transactions ... More


Virtual Currencies as Commodities

Lamia Chourou

in Commodities: Markets, Performance, and Strategies

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780190656010
eISBN:
9780190656041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190656010.003.0026
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

The rapid advancement in encryption and network computing gave birth to new tools and products that have influenced the local and global economy alike. One recent and notable example is the emergence ... More


In Code(rs) We Trust: Software Developers as Fiduciaries in Public Blockchains

Angela Walch

in Regulating Blockchain: Techno-Social and Legal Challenges

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198842187
eISBN:
9780191878206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842187.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter addresses the myth of ‘decentralized governance’ of public blockchains, arguing that certain people who create, operate, or reshape them function much like fiduciaries of those who rely ... More


Financial Instruments and the Capital Markets

Alan N. Rechtschaffen

in Capital Markets, Derivatives, and the Law: Positivity and Preparation

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190879631
eISBN:
9780190879662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190879631.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter begins with a discussion on the capital markets. It compares primary and secondary markets, and long-term versus short-term marketplaces. This is followed by a case study on the auction ... More


Pandora’s Blocks

Jack Parkin

in Money Code Space: Hidden Power in Bitcoin, Blockchain, and Decentralisation

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780197515075
eISBN:
9780197515112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197515075.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Economy

Chapter 1 opens the lid on Bitcoin so that all of its attributes, problems, and connotations come spilling out. At the same time, it pulls these disparate strands back into focus by outlining the ... More


Building the Future

Jack Parkin

in Money Code Space: Hidden Power in Bitcoin, Blockchain, and Decentralisation

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780197515075
eISBN:
9780197515112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197515075.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Economy

The fourth chapter describes how technological decentralisation emerged with advancements in cryptography and acted as a political counterweight of resistance to the encroachment of centralised ... More


Conclusion

Jack Parkin

in Money Code Space: Hidden Power in Bitcoin, Blockchain, and Decentralisation

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780197515075
eISBN:
9780197515112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197515075.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Economy

Summarising the book’s findings, algorithmic decentralisation is shown to be an inherent contradiction as spatial trajectories coalesce at different points around blockchain networks. This provides a ... More


Introduction

Chris Brummer (ed.)

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Cryptoassets are an increasingly high profile and at times controversial asset class of financial products aiming to transform how money is transferred, capital is raised, and financial relationships ... More


Deconstructing “Decentralization”: Exploring the Core Claim of Crypto Systems

Angela Walch

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter first describes the current use of the term “decentralized” as applied to permissionless blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Then, it analyzes the complex, contested nature of the ... More


Cryptoasset Valuation: Theory and Practice

Nic Carter

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter reviews practitioner and academic work on the topic of cryptoasset valuation, introduces a value-driven taxonomy of cryptoassets, and investigates several assets directly to demonstrate ... More


Toward a Stable Tokenized Medium of Exchange

Alexander Lipton

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter discusses the current state of the crypto land and argues that stable crypto tokens, which can be viewed as an electronic analogue of cash, can help augment the existing TCP/IP ... More


The Law and Finance of Initial Coin Offerings

Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez and and Nydia Remolina

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter analyzes the legal and financial aspects of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). Section I examines the concept, features, and structure of an ICO. Section II analyzes the different regulatory ... More


Difficulties in Achieving Neutrality and Other Challenges in Taxing Cryptoassets

Christophe Waerzeggers and Irving Aw

in Cryptoassets: Legal, Regulatory, and Monetary Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190077310
eISBN:
9780190077358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190077310.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The recent volatility in cryptoassets prices—booming to almost USD 800 billion in estimated market capitalization early 2018 only to collapse to about a quarter of that value by the time of ... More


Regulation of Blockchain Token Sales in the United States

Houman B. Shadab

in Regulating Blockchain: Techno-Social and Legal Challenges

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198842187
eISBN:
9780191878206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842187.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter provides an overview of how US securities regulation applies to the sale of cryptographic tokens using a distributed ledger, so-called initial coin offerings. Token sale transactions ... More


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