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New York City’s Natural Experiment

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0071
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter examines crime in New York City, but uses New York as a laboratory for new theories about the linkage between crime and social structure in urban American life. New York City received a ... More


The Usual Suspects: Imprisonment, Demography, and the Economy

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0026
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter covers discussion during and after the 1990s of factors that had long been considered as potential crime prevention—incarceration, demography, and economic expansion. With respect to ... More


What Happens Next?

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0081
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter addresses a single question: How low can crime rates drop without major changes in the character of American life? It begins with an analysis of crime since the turn of the century. ... More


Crime, Punishment, and Social Disorder: Crime Rates and Trends in Public Opinion over More Than Three Decades

James D. Wright, Jana L. Jasinski, and Drew Noble Lanier

in Social Trends in American Life: Findings from the General Social Survey since 1972

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133317
eISBN:
9781400845569
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133317.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

In 1980, Arthur Stinchcombe, Tom Smith, Garth Taylor, and several additional coauthors published Crime and Punishment—Changing Attitudes in America. The book reviewed public opinion data from the ... More


Progeny of the 1990s: Three New Explanations of Decline

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0040
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter considers the three theorized causes of crime declines in increasing order of novelty—first police, then the rise and fall of crack cocaine, and finally the impact of increased access to ... More


Which Twin Has the Toni?: Some Statistical Lessons from Canada

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0047
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter identifies parallels between Canadian crime trends in the 1990s and those in the United States. First, it presents detailed records of Canadian crime trends over the period after 1980 ... More


Incarceration and Crime

Todd R. Clear

in Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195305791
eISBN:
9780199943944
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305791.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter examines the relation between incarceration and crime. It suggests that prisons can prevent crime in two ways: incapacitation and deterrence. It explains that incapacitation occurs when ... More


A Safe City Now?

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

The lesson of Chapter 1 is that New York City has experienced a decline in rates of serious crime that is unprecedented in modern American history. This chapter focuses on the current circumstances ... More


The Size and Character of the Crime Decline

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter presents a statistical profile of how crime dropped in the 1990s. The aim is to describe the character of the crime decline, and this is done by presenting statistics that illustrate the ... More


Seven Lessons from the 1990s

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0091
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter isolates seven important lessons that can be derived from the known facts regarding crime in the 1990s and provides a brief summary of the evidence for each. These lessons are as ... More


The Environment for Optimism: Crime Trends and Attitudes about the Effectiveness of Crime Policies

Franklin E. Zimring

in The Great American Crime Decline

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181159
eISBN:
9780199944132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181159.003.0022
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter is about a second “great divide” in attitudes about government and appropriate crime policy. The focus is not on the well-known ideological battle between left and right about crime ... More


Crime and the City

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter argues that the crime decline documented in this study requires a fundamental rethinking of the relationship between urban life and urban crime in the 21st century. Most of the high rate ... More


The Crime Decline: Some Vital Statistics

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter provides a statistical profile of the substantial crime decline that started in New York City in the early 1990s which has continued well past the turn of a new century. The first ... More


Continuity and Change in New York City

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter is a wide-ranging survey of population, social, and economic factors thought to influence crime trends. It marches through various data sets to test continuity or structural change in ... More


Open Questions

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter identifies a series of important unanswered questions that are priorities for future research. It organizes the “need to know” list around five main areas: the unsolved mystery of ... More


The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Franklin E. Zimring

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

The 40% drop in crime that occurred across the U.S. from 1991 to 2000 largely remains an unsolved mystery. Even more puzzling then is the crime rate drop in New York City, which lasted twice as long ... More


Two Patterns of Age Progression in Adolescent Crime

Franklin E. Zimring and Jeffrey Fagan

in American Juvenile Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181166
eISBN:
9780199943302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181166.003.0034
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter shows that the widely acknowledged fact that rates of crime peak in the late teen years should not be regarded as a single pattern of increase in the middle teen years followed by a peak ... More


Lessons for American Crime Control

Franklin E. Zimring

in The City that Became Safe: New York’s Lessons for Urban Crime and Its Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844425
eISBN:
9780199943357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844425.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter discusses what the entire two decades of the New York experience teaches about the major assumptions Americans have been making about methods to control crime and violence. It argues ... More


Crime and Incarceration in the United States

Alfred Blumstein

in Using Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195384642
eISBN:
9780199914609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384642.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter describes rates of crime and incarceration levels in the United States. It also provides key factors that have influenced these rates over time (e.g., availability of crack cocaine; ... More


Prevention of Crime

O.P. Mishra

in Policing Delhi: Urbanization, Crime, and Law Enforcement

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198075950
eISBN:
9780199080892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075950.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter focuses on the actions that can be adopted to prevent crime. These measures are very closely connected to the crimogenic factors are considered to be responsible for overall functioning ... More


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