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New Era of Lending: Tandon Committee and Its Aftermath

Hrishikes Bhattacharya

in Banking Strategy, Credit Appraisal, and Lending Decisions: A Risk–Return Framework

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198074106
eISBN:
9780199080861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198074106.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter focuses on the lending system proposed by the Tandon Committee in 1975, which was later perfected by the Chore Group The greatest strength of this system lay in its simplicity and ... More


Making Credit Modern: The Origins of the Debt Infrastructure in the 1920s

Louis Hyman

in Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691140681
eISBN:
9781400838400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691140681.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the modern credit system that took shape after World War I. Modern debt after World War I was defined through two new debt practices—installment credit and legalized personal ... More


Macro Tensions

János Kornai

in The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287766
eISBN:
9780191596551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287763.003.0023
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Changes in the macroeconomy can be observed in countries undergoing reforms of classical socialism, and can result in tensions if the economy has shifted appreciably from classical towards market ... More


Conclusion

Chris Briggs

in Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth-Century England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264416
eISBN:
9780191734342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264416.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This book began by describing the transformation that occurred in the 1990s in the impression and ideas of credit systems in the medieval countryside. Through this change in attitude on the medieval ... More


Introduction

Philip T. Hoffman, Gilles Postel-Vinay, and Jean-Laurent Rosenthal

in Dark Matter Credit

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691182179
eISBN:
9780691185057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691182179.003.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

This introductory chapter looks at the ways to borrow in France before banks opened their doors, and the big mountain of debt this shadow credit system raised, even by modern standards. Much of this ... More


The forms of credit and their uses

Chris Briggs

in Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth-Century England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264416
eISBN:
9780191734342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264416.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

Interactions and exchanges in medieval Europe were dominated by the involvement of credit. In the broad sense, it means allowing someone a benefit or granting them a service on the premise and ... More


Debt as Choice, Debt as Structure

Louis Hyman

in Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691140681
eISBN:
9781400838400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691140681.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This epilogue argues that the dependence on credit was the creation, intentional and unintentional, of the sometimes unlikely choices of government, business, and consumers. Over the first half of ... More


Creditors and debtors

Chris Briggs

in Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth-Century England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264416
eISBN:
9780191734342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264416.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

In the previous studies about medieval creditors and debtors, two main points were constant: 1) creditors tended to be richer than the debtors; and 2) creditors and debtors tended not to overlap; an ... More


Introduction: A Hunger for the Real

Andrew Lawson

in Downwardly Mobile: The Changing Fortunes of American Realism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199828050
eISBN:
9780199933334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828050.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

The introduction shows how Americans in the antebellum period were troubled by a growing sense that reality was becoming opaque and abstract, with the economic structure resting on an expanded credit ... More


Small Changes: Credit, Debt, and Money in the Languedoc

James Livesey

in Provincializing Global History: Money, Ideas, and Things in the Languedoc, 1680-1830

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780300237160
eISBN:
9780300249521
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300237160.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter explains mass popular involvement in public debt. It provides an index for the complex ways in which the public credit system was beginning to be used by different kinds of people. These ... More


The Creation of the Federal Land Banks

Gail Radford

in The Rise of the Public Authority: Statebuilding and Economic Development in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226037691
eISBN:
9780226037868
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226037868.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter describes the origins of the Federal Land Banks, established by Congress in 1916 to provide a national agricultural credit system. The land banks pioneered, at the federal level, an ... More


Boll Weevil Blues: Cotton, Myth, and Power in the American South

James C. Giesen

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226292878
eISBN:
9780226292854
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226292854.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Between the 1890s and the early 1920s, the boll weevil slowly ate its way across the Cotton South from Texas to the Atlantic Ocean. At the turn of the century, some Texas counties were reporting crop ... More


Bases of Credit

Simon James Bytheway and Mark Metzler

in Central Banks and Gold: How Tokyo, London, and New York Shaped the Modern World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501704949
eISBN:
9781501705953
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501704949.003.0001
Subject:
History, Economic History

This introductory chapter provides a background of central banks. A century ago, when the Federal Reserve System was first established in the United States, central banks based their own creation of ... More


The Rush for Gold

Simon James Bytheway and Mark Metzler

in Central Banks and Gold: How Tokyo, London, and New York Shaped the Modern World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501704949
eISBN:
9781501705953
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501704949.003.0009
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter describes the great rush to cash in national currencies for gold in 1930 and 1931. Under the press of this run on gold, gold-based credit systems collapsed. Thus, credit-led ... More


China Development Bank: Born Bankrupt, Born Shaper

Qiyuan Xu

in The Future of National Development Banks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198827948
eISBN:
9780191866630
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827948.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Established in 1994, the China Development Bank was soon on the verge of bankruptcy, but then it miraculously recovered in early 2000s. Now with total assets of USD 1.85 trillion, CDB ranks as one of ... More


Public Subsidies for Private and Public Education: The Dutch Case

Estelle James

in Private Education: Studies in Choice and Public Policy

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195037104
eISBN:
9780197565612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195037104.003.0012
Subject:
Education, Philosophy and Theory of Education

The possibility of “privatizing” education and other quasi-public services has been widely discussed in the United States today, and in other chapters of this volume. Policies such as a voucher or ... More


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