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Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


Causality and Multi‐Level Selection

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter analyzes the causal dimension to multi-level selection theory. Particular attention is paid to the idea that direct selection at one hierarchical level may generate, as a side effect, a ... More


STRUCTURED LOW RANK APPROXIMATION

Moody T. Chu and Gene H. Golub

in Inverse Eigenvalue Problems: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566649
eISBN:
9780191718021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566649.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

The task of retrieving useful information while maintaining the underlying physical feasibility often necessitates the search for a good structured lower rank approximation of the data matrix. This ... More


Regression Model

Aman Ullah

in Finite Sample Econometrics

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780198774471
eISBN:
9780191601347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774478.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter presents the finite sample analysis of estimators and test statistics in the case of regression models, where the errors have a scalar covariance matrix. Most of the results of the ... More


Models with Nonscalar Covariance Matrix of Errors

Aman Ullah

in Finite Sample Econometrics

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780198774471
eISBN:
9780191601347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774478.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter examines regression models with nonscalar covariance matrix of errors. This includes the estimators and test statistics in the context of linear regression with heteroskedasticity and ... More


Use of Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Multiple Groups

Donna Harrington

in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195339888
eISBN:
9780199863662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195339888.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter focuses on using multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the appropriateness of CFA models across different groups and populations. Multiple-group CFA involves ... More


Covariance Structures for Dynamic Error Components

Manuel Arellano

in Panel Data Econometrics

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199245284
eISBN:
9780191602481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199245282.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter analyses the time series properties of panel data sets, focusing on short panels. It discusses time effects and moving average covariances. It presents estimates of covariance structures ... More


Basic Statistics in Multivariate Analysis

Karen A. Randolph and Laura L. Myers

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199764044
eISBN:
9780199332533
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764044.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

The complexity of social problems necessitates that social work researchers utilize multivariate statistical methods in their investigations. Having a thorough understanding of basic statistics can ... More


Modeling Autoregressive Conditional Skewness and Kurtosis with Multi‐Quantile CAViaR

Halbert White, Tae‐Hwan Kim, and Simone Manganelli

in Volatility and Time Series Econometrics: Essays in Honor of Robert Engle

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199549498
eISBN:
9780191720567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549498.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter extends Engle and Manganelli's (2004) univariate CAViaR model to a multi-quantile version, MQ-CAViaR. This allows for both a general vector autoregressive structure in the conditional ... More


General Covariance and the “Relativized A Priori”: Two Roads from Kant

Thomas Ryckman

in The Reign of Relativity: Philosophy in Physics 1915-1925

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195177176
eISBN:
9780199835324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195177177.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

A tension within Kant’s Transcendental Analytic, regarding the combination of the “active” faculty of understanding with the “passive” faculty of sensibility, underlies the distinct appraisals in ... More


Least-squares fitting of parameters

Peter Main

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

In crystallography, numerical parameters for the structure are derived from experimental data. This chapter discusses how the data and parameters are related, and introduces data fitting procedures ... More


Random and systematic errors

Simon Parsons and William Clegg

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter outlines some basic statistical methods and shows their application in crystallography, particularly in analysing the results. Concepts include: random and systematic errors, precision ... More


Symmetries Guiding Modern Science 1

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The concepts analysed and developed in the previous chapter are applied to discussions of the development of modern mechanics, including symmetries of space and time, relativity, conservation laws, ... More


GR as a geometric theory of gravity — II

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The mathematical realization of equivalence principle (EP) is the principle of general covariance. General relativity (GR) equations must be covariant with respect to general coordinate ... More


Advantages and Drawbacks Of Effective Theory

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The energy momentum tensor for the vacuum field which represents gravity is non-covariant, since the effective gravitational field obeys hydrodynamic equations rather than Einstein equations. ... More


Quantized Dirac Fields

Carlo Giunti and Chung W. Kim

in Fundamentals of Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198508717
eISBN:
9780191708862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508717.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the physics of quantized Dirac fields with detailed treatment of Dirac equation, representations of gamma matrices, products of gamma matrices, relativistic covariance (boosts, ... More


Fourvectors and Operators

Oliver Johns

in Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567264
eISBN:
9780191717987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567264.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter develops techniques that allow relativistically covariant calculations to be done in an elegant manner and introduces what are known as fourvectors. Fourvectors are analogous to the ... More


Physics in a Uniformly Accelerated Frame

Valeri P. Frolov and Andrei Zelnikov

in Introduction to Black Hole Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199692293
eISBN:
9780191731860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692293.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Equivalence principle relates physics in an accelerated frame and in a gravitational field. It is possible to understand many properties of black holes beginning with the flat Minkowski spacetime. We ... More


Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development

Sean H. Rice

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sewall Wright originally conceived of his Adaptive Landscape as a visual device to capture the consequences of non-linear (epistatic) interactions between genes. A useful way to visualise a ... More


Examining the Multilevel Model’s Error Covariance Structure

Judith D. Singer and John B. Willett

in Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis: Modeling Change and Event Occurrence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195152968
eISBN:
9780199864980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152968.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The previous chapters emphasized the fixed effects in the multilevel model for change. This chapter, in contrast, focuses on the model's random effects as embodied in its error covariance structure. ... More


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