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Bōtaihō: Organised Crime Countermeasures—Japanese Style

Peter B. E. Hill

in The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199257522
eISBN:
9780191601026
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257523.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

Deals with the response of the state to organized crime. During the early 1990s a new anti‐yakuza law was introduced. Having discussed the reasons for this law's introduction, this law is described ... More


State Responsibility for International Terrorism

Kimberley N. Trapp

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199592999
eISBN:
9780191729102
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592999.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The rules of State responsibility have an important but under-utilised role to play in the terrorism context. They determine both whether a breach of primary obligations has occurred, through the ... More


Genetically Modified Pathogens

William R. Clark

in Bracing for Armageddon?: The Science and Politics of Bioterrorism in America

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195336214
eISBN:
9780199868537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336214.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

It is likely that within not too many years, we will have effectively neutralized most if not all of the CDC A-list agents as potential bioterror weapons. But for some time now scientists have been ... More


Measures Taken Outside the Self-Defence Framework

Noam Lubell

in Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199584840
eISBN:
9780191594540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584840.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter questions whether extraterritorial use of force against non-state actors might, in certain conditions, not be a breach of international law, even if taken outside the framework of ... More


The Power and Purpose of International Law: Insights from the Theory and Practice of Enforcement

Mary Ellen O'Connell

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195368949
eISBN:
9780199871100
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368949.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

International law supports order in the world and the attainment of humanity's fundamental goals of advancing peace, prosperity, human rights, and environmental protection. Yet, there have been ... More


Sleep and shift-work

J. Axelsson, G. Kecklund, and M. Sallinen

in Sleep, Health and Society: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199566594
eISBN:
9780191595066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566594.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The rapid development of the modern society has resulted in a growing population of workers that have to work around the clock. However, working at other times (which is what a shift-worker does) ... More


Safety

Tee L. Guidotti

in Global Occupational Health

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195380002
eISBN:
9780199893881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380002.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Safety, or safety science, refers to the application of technology, behavioral science and administrative controls to prevent incidents resulting in injury, property loss and lost productivity. ... More


Disobeying the Security Council: Countermeasures against Wrongful Sanctions

Antonios Tzanakopoulos

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600762
eISBN:
9780191725210
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600762.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This book examines how the United Nations Security Council, in exercising its power to impose binding non-forcible measures (‘sanctions’) under Article 41 of the UN Charter, may violate international ... More


Measures adopted in response to international terrorism

Kimberley N. Trapp

in State Responsibility for International Terrorism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199592999
eISBN:
9780191729102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592999.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Chapter 5 analyses the implementation of State responsibility for international terrorism through the adoption of non-military measures aimed at securing a wrongdoing State’s compliance with its ... More


Implementation through Self-Enforcement

Antonios Tzanakopoulos

in Disobeying the Security Council: Countermeasures against Wrongful Sanctions

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600762
eISBN:
9780191725210
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600762.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines how the responsibility of the UN for wrongful Security Council sanctions can be implemented. The normal way of implementation of responsibility in a decentralized legal system ... More


Conclusion to Part III

Vincent-Joël Proulx

in Institutionalizing State Responsibility: Global Security and UN Organs

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199680399
eISBN:
9780191760297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680399.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This concluding chapter recalls the major themes and issues addressed in Part III of the monograph, emphasizing that the invocation of self-defence (or more modest forcible reactions) in response to ... More


The making of custom through sanctions of international organisations

Maruša T. Veber

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781526134158
eISBN:
9781526161000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7765/9781526134165.00021
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter argues that international organisations can be conducive to the emergence or consolidation of the customary status of those primary rules of international law which their sanctions are ... More


The value of product sampling in mitigating food adulteration

Louise Manning and Jan Mei Soon

in A Handbook of Food Crime: Immoral and Illegal Practices in the Food Industry and What to Do About Them

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447336013
eISBN:
9781447336051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447336013.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Food supply chain fraud occurs as a result of a multiplicity of drivers, motivations, and intended outcomes. The aim of this book chapter is to consider one aspect of food fraud, namely adulteration ... More


American Biodefense, from Boston to Baghdad

Frank L. Smith

in American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801452710
eISBN:
9780801455162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452710.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This introductory chapter provides a background of biodefense and biological weapons. Biological weapons harm only living organisms because they incapacitate or kill through disease instead of ... More


Cyber Operations and the Law of Neutrality

Marco Roscini

in Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199655014
eISBN:
9780191747991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199655014.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This Chapter explores how the law of neutrality affects the conduct of cyber operations by neutral and belligerent states. It first establishes in what situations the law of neutrality applies and ... More


Sleep and shift work

John Axelsson, Mikael Sallinen, Tina Sundelin, and Göran Kecklund

in Sleep, Health, and Society: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198778240
eISBN:
9780191823756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198778240.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

The rapid development of modern society has resulted in a growing population of workers that have to work around the clock. However, working at different times comes at a cost. Night work is related ... More


The Role of Sleep in Human Performance and Well-Being

Nita Lewis Shattuck, Panagiotis Matsangas, Vincent Mysliwiec, and Jennifer L. Creamer

in Human Performance Optimization: The Science and Ethics of Enhancing Human Capabilities

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190455132
eISBN:
9780190455156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190455132.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter explores the influence of sleep on human performance and well-being. A general discussion of the role of sleep in humans is followed by a description of the functions of various stages ... More


Functionalism

Lorenzo Gasbarri

in The Concept of an International Organization in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780192895790
eISBN:
9780191916335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895790.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Functionalism is conventionally considered the mainstream paradigm of the law of international organizations: organizations are agents of their member states by the means of a contractual ... More


Institutionalizing State Responsibility: Global Security and UN Organs

Vincent-Joël Proulx

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199680399
eISBN:
9780191760297
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680399.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This monograph examines the role UN organs can play in implementing the law of State responsibility in global security contexts, using transnational terrorism as its principal case study. It ... More


Cyber National Security: Navigating Gray-Zone Challenges in and through Cyberspace

Gary P. Corn

in Complex Battlespaces: The Law of Armed Conflict and the Dynamics of Modern Warfare

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190915360
eISBN:
9780190915391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190915360.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

When the first host-to-host message was sent across the ARPANET in October 1969, few could have fully anticipated the degree to which the internet, and now the internet of things, would explode ... More


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