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Psychological Studies of Causal and Counterfactual Reasoning

James Woodward

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This paper explores some interconnections between studies of causal and counterfactual reasoning conducted by psychologists and treatments of causation and counterfactuals in the philosophical ... More


Counterfactual and Other Forms of Conditional Reasoning: Children Lost in the Nearest Possible World

Josef Perner and Eva Rafetseder

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We distinguish different kinds of conditional reasoning and focus on basic (BCR) and counterfactual conditional reasoning (CFR). Both kinds of inferences use actual regularities in the (toy) world ... More


Introduction: Understanding Counterfactuals and Causation

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We provide an introduction to some of the key issues raised in this volume by considering how individual chapters bear on the prospects of what may be called a ‘counterfactual process view’ of causal ... More


The Relationship between Children’s Causal and Counterfactual Judgements

Teresa McCormack, Caren Frosch, and Patrick Burns

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, we distinguish between two ways in which counterfactual and causal judgements might be linked. According to a psychological relatedness view, counterfactual and causal judgements are ... More


Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How are causal judgements such as ‘The ice on the road caused the traffic accident’ connected with counterfactual judgements such as ‘If there had not been any ice on the road, the traffic accident ... More


An Investigation of the Lumps of Thought 1

Angelika Kratzer

in Modals and Conditionals: New and Revised Perspectives

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199234684
eISBN:
9780191738432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234684.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

Chapter 5 investigates premise splitting and lumping in counterfactual reasoning. Understanding what holds a lump of premises together calls for a semantics based on partial possible worlds or ... More


Domain-Specific Causal Knowledge and Children’s Reasoning about Possibility

David M. Sobel

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The goal of this chapter is to describe three lines of research centered on the hypothesis that young children possess domain-specific systems of causal knowledge that allow for various kinds of ... More


Architecture of Counterfactual Thought in the Prefrontal Cortex

Aron K. Barbey, Frank Krueger, and Jordan Grafman

in Predictions in the Brain: Using Our Past to Generate a Future

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195395518
eISBN:
9780199897230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395518.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter develops an integrative cognitive neuroscience framework for understanding counterfactual reasoning on the basis of structured event complexes (SECs) in the human prefrontal cortex ... More


Epistemic Circularity and Epistemic Incommensurability

Michael P. Lynch

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter explores an analogy between our reliance on memory and our reliance on news coverage. The analogy derives from a certain sort of counterfactual reasoning that might be employed to ... More


On the Genealogy of Modality

Boris Kment

in Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199604685
eISBN:
9780191758928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604685.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 11 gives a more detailed account of the counterfactual method of investigating questions about causation and non-causal explanation. Moreover, it offers a functional explanation of the fact ... More


Causation, Nomic Determination, and the Counterfactual Test

Boris Kment

in Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199604685
eISBN:
9780191758928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604685.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 10 introduces the main idea of the account of the function of modal thinking defended in the book. Modal concepts originate in the practice of supporting claims about causal and other ... More


Extensions and Limitations of the Counterfactual Test

Boris Kment

in Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199604685
eISBN:
9780191758928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604685.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 12 discusses additional ways in which counterfactual reasoning is used to investigate explanatory relationships under determinism, and how it can be applied in the context of indeterminism. ... More


Methods of Research and Their Usability

Neil J. Smelser and John S. Reed

in Usable Social Science

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520273566
eISBN:
9780520954144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273566.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

The aim of this chapter is to identify the major methods of research in the social sciences and to examine the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method with respect to their relevance and ... More


Capturing the Scientific Imagination

Fiora Salis and Roman Frigg

in The Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

What sort of imagination is involved in scientific models and thought experiments? This chapter develops a unifying taxonomy of the different kinds of imagination discussed in aesthetics and ... More


Consuming Fictions Part I: Recovering Fictional Truths

Peter Langland-Hassan

in Explaining Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198815068
eISBN:
9780191852886
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815068.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Given that we imagine in response to fictions, the key question is whether these imaginings can be understood in more basic folk psychological terms. This chapter argues that we can determine what is ... More


Synopsis

Boris Kment

in Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199604685
eISBN:
9780191758928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604685.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 1 surveys the main elements of the theory of modality defended in the book: possibility and necessity are matters of degree, and the degree of possibility of a claim P depends on how close ... More


Modality and Explanatory Reasoning

Boris Kment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199604685
eISBN:
9780191758928
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604685.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Since the groundbreaking work of Saul Kripke, David Lewis, and others in the 1960s and 1970s, one dominant interest of analytic philosophers has been in modal truths, which concern the question of ... More


Empirical: Epidemiology

Peter V. Rabins

in The Why of Things: Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164726
eISBN:
9780231535458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164726.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the application of the empirical method to the study of causality by focusing on epidemiology. The word “epidemiology” shares a common root with the word “epidemic,” and ... More


The Scientific Imagination

Arnon Levy and Peter Godfrey-Smith (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Science is both a creative endeavor and a highly regimented one. It involves surprising, sometimes unthinkably novel ideas, along with meticulous exploration and the careful exclusion of ... More


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