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Conclusion

L. A. Clarkson and E. Margaret Crawford

in Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500-1920

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198227519
eISBN:
9780191708374
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227519.003.0011
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter ties the preceding arguments together by posing the counterfactual: what would history be like if human beings required neither food nor drink? It concludes by asserting that the history ... More


The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195107630
eISBN:
9780199852956
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195107630.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This book examines the three leading traditional solutions to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and human free will—those arising from Boethius, William of Ockham, and Luis de Molina. Though all ... More


The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation

J. L. Mackie

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198246428
eISBN:
9780191597954
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198246420.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this book, J. L. Mackie makes a careful study of several philosophical issues involved in his account of causation. Mackie follows Hume's distinction between causation as a concept and causation ... More


Kinds, Essence, and Natural Necessity

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The distinction between natural necessity and metaphysical necessity is examined. An account is advanced of the logical form of statements of natural law, contrasting with that of D. M. Armstrong. ... More


Materials for an Epidemiology of Culture

David Wengrow

in The Origins of Monsters: Image and Cognition in the First Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159041
eISBN:
9781400848867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159041.003.0003
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

This chapter examines composite animals as counterfactual images by focusing on a school of evolutionary psychology called the “epidemiology of culture.” Experimental studies show that the cognitive ... More


Sortal Concepts and Essential Properties II: Sortal Concepts and Principles of Individuation

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines David Wiggins’s version of sortal essentialism, which relies on the EPI thesis, that a thing’s principle of individuation is essential to it in order to derive the result that ... More


Compensation for Historic International Injustice

Daniel Butt

in Rectifying International Injustice: Principles of Compensation and Restitution Between Nations

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199218240
eISBN:
9780191711589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218240.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines claims that compensation should be paid as a result of the lasting harm and benefit caused by historic injustice. It argues that present day parties who have benefited from the ... More


Restitution and Inheritance

Daniel Butt

in Rectifying International Injustice: Principles of Compensation and Restitution Between Nations

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199218240
eISBN:
9780191711589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218240.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, International Relations and Politics

This chapter focuses on the claim that present day parties have inherited entitlements to property which, owing to historic injustice, is currently in the possession of others. Those who advocate ... More


Reasoning About Causation

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter discusses three kinds of reasoning that illustrate the central role of causality. The first part shows that causal considerations enter into how people think about some mathematical ... More


The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain

Mark Casson

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199213979
eISBN:
9780191707469
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213979.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History, Organization Studies

The British railway network was a monument to Victorian private enterprise. Its masterpieces of civil engineering were emulated around the world. But its performance was controversial: praised for ... More


Introduction and Summary

Mark Casson

in The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199213979
eISBN:
9780191707469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213979.003.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History, Organization Studies

This chapter discusses controversies over the performance of the British railway system. It introduces a new source of evidence: the deposited plans of railway companies. This source is used to ... More


The Counterfactual Network

Mark Casson

in The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199213979
eISBN:
9780191707469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213979.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History, Organization Studies

The counterfactual railway system was constructed using nine heuristic principles. The most important was the Steiner Principle, which asserts that under certain conditions an optimal railway network ... More


Dispositions

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter has two purposes: to discuss what properties are, and to explore what dispositions are. Natural properties are contrasted with abundant properties and their relationship to universals ... More


CAUSALITY

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter provides an overview of the principal philosophical accounts of the nature of causality, including the mechanistic, probabilistic, counterfactual, and agency accounts.


White Thin Bone: Yeatsian Personhood

Oren Izenberg

in Being Numerous: Poetry and the Ground of Social Life

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144832
eISBN:
9781400836529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144832.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter examines the philosophical origins and political urgencies of William Butler Yeats's demand for “perfection” and “completeness.” It begins with a discussion of Yeats's conception of ... More


Counterfactual Romanticism

Damian Walford Davies (ed.)

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781784991418
eISBN:
9781526150370
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7765/9781526107077
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

Introducing contingency and that which did not happen as necessary and revealing conditions both of Romanticism itself and of our critical relationship with it, Counterfactual Romanticism explores ... More


Causality and Persons

John Levi Martin

in The Explanation of Social Action

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199773312
eISBN:
9780199897223
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199773312.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

Chapter 2 examines the current favored “third person” explanation in the social sciences, namely causality. The socials sciences currently agree that causality is king, and that ... More


Hume’s Two Definitions of Cause

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines David Hume's two definitions of cause in the context of quantitative and qualitative research. The two definitions can be found in Hume's quotation from Enquiries Concerning ... More


Counterfactuals

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines the use of counterfactual analysis in making causal inferences in the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. To assess a counterfactual claim about a particular case, ... More


In Defense of the Causal Theory of Memory

Sven Bernecker

in Memory: A Philosophical Study

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199577569
eISBN:
9780191722820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577569.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The interpretations of the memory connection proposed in the literature fall into three categories: the evidential retention theory, the simple retention theory, and the causal retention theory. This ... More


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