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The Sociobiology of Human Cooperation

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter examines the sociobiology of human cooperation. Given the tendency of people to copy the successful and the fact that natural selection favors the more fit, the chapter asks how our ... More


The Content of Narrative

Gregory Currie

in Narratives and Narrators: A Philosophy of Stories

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199282609
eISBN:
9780191712432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282609.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics, Philosophy of Mind

To distinguish narratives from other representational vehicles we need to say something about what distinguishes the contents of narratives from the contents of other things: theories, lists, annals, ... More


The evolution of charitable behaviour and the power of reputation

Pat Barclay

in Applied Evolutionary Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199586073
eISBN:
9780191731358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586073.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Charitable behaviour is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective: why does such behaviour exist despite its costs, and what causes it to evolve and persist? Answering such questions helps us to ... More


Animal Communication

Richard Mcelreath and Robert Boyd

in Mathematical Models of Social Evolution: A Guide for the Perplexed

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226558264
eISBN:
9780226558288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226558288.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The basic premise of game theory is that social life is like a giant game. If this is true, it is also true that life is less like chess and more like poker. In games like chess, information is ... More


“By Weapons Made Worthy”: A Darwinian Perspective on Beowulf

Raymond Corbey and Angus Mol

in Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794393
eISBN:
9780199919338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794393.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores how biologically oriented approaches to narratives relate to more traditional hermeneutic and culturalist readings. As a case study, two ethnological readings of reciprocal ... More


Dictators and Ultimatums in an Egalitarian Society of Hunter–Gatherers: The Hadza of Tanzani a

Frank Marlowe

in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199262052
eISBN:
9780191601637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262055.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

It has often been suggested that the foundation for much human cooperation is the widespread food sharing observed among hunter–gatherers. To investigate this proposition, the study reported here ... More


The Evolution of Altruism through Sexual Selection

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

The basic idea underlying the evolution of altruism through sexual selection is that altruistic traits that are a burden to survival can evolve if they increase animals’ reproductive success. It is ... More


The Priority of Trust in Signal Interpretation

Nicholas J. Wheeler

in Trusting Enemies: Interpersonal Relationships in International Conflict

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780199696475
eISBN:
9780191835599
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199696475.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter considers two theories that develop an alternative basis to trust for accurate signal interpretation. The two theories, both of which rely on the proposition that, if a signal can be ... More


‘When You Come Together’: Ritual and Cooperation

Risto Uro

in Ritual and Christian Beginnings

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199661176
eISBN:
9780191793455
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661176.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies, Religious Studies

This chapter delves into the question of how ritual facilitates social life and cooperation. Changing the focus from the action perspective to one of cooperation enables the investigation of the ... More


The Cultural Evolution of Honor Killing

Robert Paul Churchill

in Women in the Crossfire: Understanding and Ending Honor Killing

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190468569
eISBN:
9780190468590
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190468569.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The focus in this chapter is on why honor killing ever came into existence as a social practice. The units for analysis are sociocultural systems and ecological pressures on the demographic groups ... More


A Theory of Asymmetric Interstate Coercion

Phil Haun

in Coercion, Survival, and War: Why Weak States Resist the United States

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780804792837
eISBN:
9780804795074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804792837.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter develops a theory of asymmetric interstate coercion. A coercive strategy includes compellent or deterrent demands, punishment or denial threats, and costly signals. The determinants of ... More


Mitigating the Cybersecurity Dilemma

Ben Buchanan

in The Cybersecurity Dilemma: Hacking, Trust and Fear Between Nations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190665012
eISBN:
9780190686543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190665012.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter considers how the cybersecurity dilemma can be mitigated. It considers the ways in which states can act unilaterally to improve their baseline defenses, can form bilateral partnerships ... More


Signals, Cooperation, and Learning

Kim Sterelny

in The Evolved Apprentice: How Evolution Made Humans Unique

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262016797
eISBN:
9780262302814
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016797.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter takes on the task of explaining the stability of honest signals amongst agents with potentially divergent interests. The chapter identifies forms of low risk signalling and responding: ... More


Ritual

István Czachesz

in Cognitive Science and the New Testament: A New Approach to Early Christian Research

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198779865
eISBN:
9780191825880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198779865.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, Religious Studies

This chapter considers five perspectives on rituals. First, rituals can be seen as actions without a practical purpose, a view that goes back to Sigmund Freud and is reflected by the concepts of ... More


How Conspiracy Theories Spread

Darin DeWitt, Matthew D. Atkinson, and Drew Wegner

in Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190844073
eISBN:
9780190909611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190844073.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

Why do some ideas of uncertain merit, like conspiracy theories, gain traction and spread through society? To date, conspiracy theory scholarship primarily focuses on thick description, generates ... More


Origins of the Moral Punishment Instinct

Jan-Willem van Prooijen

in The Moral Punishment Instinct

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190609979
eISBN:
9780190610005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190609979.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Third-party punishment occurs among insect species, cleaner fish, and non-human primates. This suggests that organisms do not need a sophisticated sense of morality to be punitive. Why, then, did ... More


Introduction

David L. Weddle

in Sacrifice in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780814764916
eISBN:
9780814762813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814764916.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

The book begins with an example of sacrifice enacted in the Roman Catholic Mass, celebrated and lived out by young nuns from India of the order of Missionaries of Charity founded by Mother Teresa, ... More


Conclusion: The Dangers of the Cybersecurity Dilemma

Ben Buchanan

in The Cybersecurity Dilemma: Hacking, Trust and Fear Between Nations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190665012
eISBN:
9780190686543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190665012.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

The conclusion recapitulates the argument of the book. It shows as well the stakes of the problem, describing the damage that can flow from an unchecked cybersecurity dilemma. It shows how the ... More


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