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Lowness properties and K-triviality

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter shows the equivalence of K-triviality and lowness for Martin–Löf randomness. This coincidence extends to other lowness properties, such as being a base for Martin–Löf randomness, and ... More


Classes of computational complexity

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter studies lowness properties of sets not necessarily below the halting problem. The main new notions are all related to traceability. It characterizes lowness for Schnorr, and computable ... More


On a Class of Preference Fields

W. M. Gorman

C. Blackorby and A. F. Shorrocks (eds)

in Separability and Aggregation: The Collected Works of W. M. Gorman, Volume I

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198285212
eISBN:
9780191596322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198285213.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This short note, published in Metroeconomica 13 (1961), begins with the assumption that the preferences of the consumer exhibit linear Engel curves, which were shown in ’Community preference fields’ ... More


Quasi‐Separable Preferences, Costs, and Technologies

W. M. Gorman

C. Blackorby and A. F. Shorrocks (eds)

in Separability and Aggregation: The Collected Works of W. M. Gorman, Volume I

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198285212
eISBN:
9780191596322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198285213.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This paper is from an unpublished typescript prepared at the University of North Carolina in 1970. It is a thorough analysis of the distance function that Gorman first discovered in ’Consumer budgets ... More


Optimization Problems

Hidetoshi Nishimori

in Statistical Physics of Spin Glasses and Information Processing: An Introduction

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509417
eISBN:
9780191709081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509417.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A decision-making problem is often formulated as the minimization or maximization of a multivariable function, an optimization problem. This chapter shows that the methods of statistical mechanics ... More


Professor Friedman's Consumption Function and the Theory of Choice

W. M. Gorman

C. Blackorby and A. F. Shorrocks (eds)

in Separability and Aggregation: The Collected Works of W. M. Gorman, Volume I

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198285212
eISBN:
9780191596322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198285213.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Although this paper, which was published in Econometrica 32 (1964) can be read as a straightforward budgeting argument, it was inspired by a claim of Sargan's about the necessary and sufficient ... More


Optimization

Sergey N. Dorogovtsev

in Lectures on Complex Networks

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199548927
eISBN:
9780191720574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548927.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter demonstrates how a universal requirement for optimality leads to the complex structural organization of a network. It discusses a long-lasting criticism of the preferential concept and ... More


The Effect of the German and UK Environmental Tax Reforms on the Demand for Labour and Energy

Paolo Agnolucci

in Environmental Tax Reform (ETR): A Policy for Green Growth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199584505
eISBN:
9780191725012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584505.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The objective of ETRs is to improve the environment (for example, by reducing carbon emissions) while reducing other taxes which may have a negative economic effect. Often ETRs also have the ... More


Data Fitting

Kelly Chance and Randall V. Martin

in Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780199662104
eISBN:
9780191748370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199662104.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter explores several of the most common and useful approaches to atmospheric data fitting as well as the process of using air mass factors to produce vertical atmospheric column abundances ... More


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