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Inflation and the accelerating universe

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Einstein introduced the cosmological constant in his field equation so as to obtain a static universe solution. This constant energy density corresponds to a negative pressure, giving rise to a ... More


GR as a geometric theory of gravity — II

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The mathematical realization of equivalence principle (EP) is the principle of general covariance. General relativity (GR) equations must be covariant with respect to general coordinate ... More


Exploring the Universe With a Microscope

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Results from the LHC can expand our knowledge of the early stages of the universe. The connection between the world of particle physics and the structure of our universe is probably one of the most ... More


The cosmological constant problem: why it’s hard to get dark energy from microphysics

C. P. Burgess

in Post-Planck Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198728856
eISBN:
9780191795794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728856.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter presents an introduction to “naturalness” problems in cosmology and the cosmological constant problem in particular. The main focus is the “old” cosmological constant problem, although ... More


Casimir Effect and Vacuum Energy

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter opens the part of the book devoted to quantum vacuum in non-trivial gravitational background and to vacuum energy. There are several macroscopic phenomena, which can be directly related ... More


Believing the Big Bang

Peter Coles

in From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567622
eISBN:
9780191718250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567622.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Cosmology aims to build a coherent unified description of the entire universe as a single system. This means not just the disposition of everything that exists at a particular time, but also how this ... More


Gravity

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses the Einstein theory of gravity, which consists of two main elements: (1) gravity is related to a curvature of space-time in which particles move along geodesic curves; and (2) ... More


Microscopic Physics of Quantum Liquids

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There are two ways to study quantum liquids. One is the fully microscopic treatment, which can be realised either by numerical simulations of the many-body problem, or for some special ranges of the ... More


The General Relativistic Framework for Cosmology

Ta-Pei Cheng

in A College Course on Relativity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199693405
eISBN:
9780191803130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693405.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Cosmology is the study of the universe as one physical system. The discovery by Hubble and Lemaître that the universe is expanding suggested strongly that it had a beginning. The age is estimated ... More


Problems with the Cosmological Constant Problem

Adam Koberinski

in Philosophy Beyond Spacetime: Implications from Quantum Gravity

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198844143
eISBN:
9780191879777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844143.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The cosmological constant problem is widely viewed as an important barrier and hint to merging quantum field theory and general relativity. It is a barrier insofar as it remains unsolved, and a ... More


Inflation and the Accelerating Universe

Ta-Pei Cheng

in A College Course on Relativity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199693405
eISBN:
9780191803130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693405.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The universe experienced a huge expansion in the earliest moments of the big bang. This cosmic inflationary epoch (with a large cosmological constant) can provide the correct initial conditions for ... More


Albert Einstein’s Finite Universe

Helge Kragh

in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198722892
eISBN:
9780191789564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The interview with Einstein took place in 1928 in his apartment in Berlin. Einstein explained how he came to his cosmological theory of 1917 in which he applied general relativity to the universe at ... More


Willem de Sitter and the Expanding Universe

Helge Kragh

in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198722892
eISBN:
9780191789564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The interview with the eminent Dutch astronomer Willem de Sitter took place in Leiden in 1933, at a time when the expanding universe was accepted by many astronomers. De Sitter looked back to the ... More


Alternative Gravitational Theories

John W. Moffat

in The Shadow of the Black Hole

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190650728
eISBN:
9780197517383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650728.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

There have been many proposed modifications of gravitational theory, beginning with Einstein’s general relativity, modifying Newtonian gravity, and Weyl’s attempt at unifying gravity and ... More


Introduction: Gut and Anti-Gut

VOLOVIK GRIGORY E.

in The Universe in a Helium Droplet

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199564842
eISBN:
9780191709906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564842.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The book studies relations of condensed matter with particle physics and cosmology. The fundamental links between cosmology and particle physics have been well established and is widely exploited in ... More


The induced gravity approach

Iosif L. Buchbinder and Ilya L. Shapiro

in Introduction to Quantum Field Theory with Applications to Quantum Gravity

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198838319
eISBN:
9780191874666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838319.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This short chapter includes a general review and analysis of the induced gravity approach. Induced gravity is regarded as one way of resolving the contradiction between renormalizability and the ... More


Observational support for the standard model

Hans Ringström

in On the Topology and Future Stability of the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680290
eISBN:
9780191760235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680290.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Geometry / Topology

In 1998–1999, our perception of the universe underwent a dramatic change. The observations of supernovae of type Ia led to the conclusion that our universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. One ... More


Asymptotics

Hans Ringström

in On the Topology and Future Stability of the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680290
eISBN:
9780191760235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680290.003.0032
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Geometry / Topology

In Chapter 32, we derive detailed asymptotics of the solutions constructed in Chapter 31. We separate between the two cases that the scalar field is zero and non-zero. The case of zero scalar field ... More


The Crash

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0036
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Quantum Mechanics plays a role in our understanding of the extremely large and small realities, Why the measured cosmological constant has such an “unnatural” value. Natural numbers in a physical ... More


Riemann and Einstein

Moataz H. Emam

in Covariant Physics: From Classical Mechanics to General Relativity and Beyond

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198864899
eISBN:
9780191897313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864899.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In this chapter we make notions of spatial and spacetime curvature more precise by presenting Riemann’s theory of non-Euclidean spaces. We then construct Einstein’s gravitational field equations and ... More


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