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Exploring the Universe With a Microscope

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Results from the LHC can expand our knowledge of the early stages of the universe. The connection between the world of particle physics and the structure of our universe is probably one of the most ... More


The Hot Big Bang

HELGE S. KRAGH

in Conceptions of Cosmos: From Myths to the Accelerating Universe: A History of Cosmology

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199209163
eISBN:
9780191706219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209163.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on the emergence and development of the Big Bang theory of the universe, from the mid 1940s to the late 1970s. George Gamow, a main figure in this development, developed an early ... More


The expanding universe and thermal relics

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573639
eISBN:
9780191722448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573639.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The dynamics of a changing universe are determined by Friedmann equations, which have simple quasi-Newtonian interpretations. The universe began hot and dense (the big bang), and thereafter expanded ... More


Cosmology

Carlo Giunti and Chung W. Kim

in Fundamentals of Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198508717
eISBN:
9780191708862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508717.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces the standard cosmological model and explains basic general relativity, Robertson–Walker metric (geodesic motion, redshift, Hubble's law, angular diameter-redshift relation, ... More


Robert Dicke and the Big Bang

Helge Kragh

in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198722892
eISBN:
9780191789564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The interview with Princeton physicist Robert Dicke took place in August 1965, shortly after the sensational discovery of a cosmic microwave background which had been interpreted as a fossil ... More


Believing the Big Bang

Peter Coles

in From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567622
eISBN:
9780191718250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567622.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Cosmology aims to build a coherent unified description of the entire universe as a single system. This means not just the disposition of everything that exists at a particular time, but also how this ... More


Big Bang Thermal Relics

Ta-Pei Cheng

in A College Course on Relativity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199693405
eISBN:
9780191803130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693405.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The universe began hot and dense (the big bang), and then expanded and cooled. (The different thermal stages are summarized in a chronological table in this chapter.) Such a cosmic history leaves ... More


Photons

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter considers the thermodynamics of electromagnetic radiation. It begins by discussing spectral energy density, Kirchoff's law, radiation pressure, and the statistical mechanics of the ... More


The Planck mission

François R. Bouchet

in Post-Planck Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198728856
eISBN:
9780191795794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728856.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck is a ... More


Other Probes of the First Galaxies

Abraham Loeb and Steven R. Furlanetto

in The First Galaxies in the Universe

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144917
eISBN:
9781400845606
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144917.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses several other ways to probe structures during the cosmic dawn. It first turns to secondary anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, which are generated as the photons ... More


Expansion Everlasting

Steven E. Vigdor

in Signatures of the Artist: The Vital Imperfections That Make Our Universe Habitable

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198814825
eISBN:
9780191852954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814825.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 5 presents experiments illuminating the cosmological evolution of the universe and its energy budget, accounting for its longevity. The observations establishing the Hubble’s Law linear ... More


Cosmology

Nicholas Manton and Nicholas Mee

in The Physical World: An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198795933
eISBN:
9780191837111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795933.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter is about the large-scale structure of the universe, how it is described in general relativity and recent advances in determining the cosmological parameters. The Hubble distance–redshift ... More


The Battle for the Cosmos!

Nicholas Mee

in The Cosmic Mystery Tour

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831860
eISBN:
9780191869785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831860.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

We now know the universe began with the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, but for several years debate raged between the supporters of the Big Bang theory led by George Gamow and supporters of the ... More


Whispers from the Big Bang

Nils Andersson

in Gravitational-Wave Astronomy: Exploring the Dark Side of the Universe

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198568032
eISBN:
9780191878077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198568032.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses gravitational waves in the context of cosmology, starting from a summary of the standard model for cosmology—Lambda CDM. The cosmological redshift is introduced and different ... More


The Lambda-CDM model of the hot Big Bang

Nathalie Deruelle and Jean-Philippe Uzan

in Relativity in Modern Physics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198786399
eISBN:
9780191828669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786399.003.0059
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces the Lambda-CDM (cold dark matter) model. In 1948, under the impetus of George Gamow, Robert Hermann, Ralph Alpher, and Hans Bethe in particular, relativistic cosmology entered ... More


Post-Planck Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

Cédric Deffayet, Patrick Peter, Benjamin Wandelt, Matías Zaldarriaga, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198728856
eISBN:
9780191795794
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728856.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book is based on lectures given at the 100th Les Houches Summer School and presents a comprehensive pedagogical survey of the frontiers of theoretical and observational cosmology just after the ... More


Cosmology

Steven Carlip

in General Relativity: A Concise Introduction

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198822158
eISBN:
9780191861215
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822158.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Starting with the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmological solutions of the Einstein field equations—the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics—are derived. After a discussion ... More


Inflation

Michael Kachelriess

in Quantum Fields: From the Hubble to the Planck Scale

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198802877
eISBN:
9780191841330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802877.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces inflation as a phase of nearly exponential expansion in the early universe. The slow-roll conditions are deribed and possible inflationary models are discussed. Reheating ... More


The Big Bang: discovery

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A very small number of very smart individuals discovered the Big Bang (as it became known) and its aftermath. The fact that the stars are all moving away from us in a structured ... More


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