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Biopsychological and Neural Processes of Implicit Motivation

Julie L. Hall, Steven J. Stanton, and Oliver C. Schultheiss

in Implicit Motives

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335156
eISBN:
9780199776955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335156.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter we provide an overview of recent research on the biopsychological correlates of implicit motives. We review evidence for a role of gonadal steroids (testosterone and estradiol) as ... More


Immune and endocrine systems

Fabrizio Benedetti

in Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Mechanisms, Mediators, and Adaptive Consequences of Caregiving

Stephen W. Porges and C. Sue Carter

in Moving Beyond Self-Interest: Perspectives from Evolutionary Biology, Neuroscience, and the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195388107
eISBN:
9780199918386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388107.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This essay describes neurobiological and neuroendocrine mechanisms that are implicated in human caregiving. Anatomical and biochemical systems that first appeared in the evolutionary transition from ... More


Metabolic and Hormonal Predictors of Obesity

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews epidemiologic studies on metabolic and hormonal predictors of obesity. It focuses primarily on prospective cohort studies, first discussing metabolic predictors, including ... More


A life course approach to neuroendocrine systems: the example of the HPA axis

Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Michael Gardner, and Stafford Lightman

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Endocrine systems play an important role in development, and in maintaining normal health. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is one plausible pathway as it may be related to frailty, ... More


Steroids: By Joe Herbert

James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett

in Brain Damage, Brain Repair

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523376
eISBN:
9780191724534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The adrenal cortex secretes a wide range of steroids. Nearly all attention has been focused on the role in brain damage of cortisol (or corticosterone, its counterpart in some species). Only recently ... More


Commentary on Part II The Inhibited Child “Syndrome”: Thoughts on Its Potential Pathogenesis and Sequelae

George P. Chrousos and Philip W.P. Gold

in Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195118872
eISBN:
9780199848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118872.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter describes fear and its neuroendocrine regulation. It specifically highlights the role of elevated cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the regulation of fear responses, ... More


Behavioral Inhibition and the Emotional Circuitry of the Brain: Stability and Plasticity During the Early Childhood Years

Richard J. Davidson and Maureen Rickman

in Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195118872
eISBN:
9780199848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118872.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter presents the data that adrenocortical activity is an important factor mediating the child's internal social milieu. The results show that rat pups may “internalize” the results of early ... More


Biosocial and Environmental Influences

Andrea L. Glenn and Adrian Raine

in Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814777053
eISBN:
9780814777077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814777053.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter looks at how environmental factors—such as parenting, abuse, poverty, head injury, birth complications, nutrition, toxins, and a variety of other factors—can contribute to psychopathy. ... More


Other Uses: Psychosis, Pregnancy, and Status Epilepticus

Max Fink MD

in Electroconvulsive Therapy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195365740
eISBN:
9780197562604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195365740.003.0012
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Although ECT was developed as a treatment for schizophrenia, its ease of use, its safety, and the lack of effective treatments for many psychiatric conditions ... More


Assessment of Endocrine Function

Sumitha S. Hathiramani and Hans K. Ghayee

in Textbook of Endocrine Physiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199744121
eISBN:
9780197563045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199744121.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Endocrinology and Diabetes

This chapter describes the various methods used for quantifying concentrations of circulating hormones and thus assessing endocrine function. The paradigm of feedback ... More


Stress and the Adolescent Brain: The Perfect Storm

Cheryl L. Sisk and Russell D. Romeo

in Coming of Age: The Neurobiology and Psychobiology of Puberty and Adolescence

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780195314373
eISBN:
9780197507094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195314373.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental Psychology

Chapter 7 considers stress as a modulator of adolescent development. It starts with an overview of the key hormones in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and describes responses of the HPA ... More


Stress and Sleep Interact to Selectively Consolidate and Transform Negative Emotional Memories: Implications for Clinical Treatment

Jessica D. Payne

in Neuroscience of Enduring Change

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190881511
eISBN:
9780190881528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881511.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Memory consolidation processes can be highly selective. For example, negative emotional aspects of events tend to be consolidated more readily than other, more neutral, aspects. This chapter ... More


Hormones

Andrea L. Glenn and Adrian Raine

in Psychopathy: An Introduction to Biological Findings and Their Implications

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814777053
eISBN:
9780814777077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814777053.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter discusses hormones in relation to psychopathy. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and bind to receptors in the brain and body. When hormones bind to ... More


Rescuing the infant brain

Val Gillies, Rosalind Edwards, and Nicola Horsley

in Challenging the Politics of Early Intervention: Who's 'saving' Children and Why

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781447324096
eISBN:
9781447324119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447324096.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

This chapter turns to the latest diagnosis of the problem that early intervention aims to address, focusing on the quality of parenting and infant brain development. It explores how brain claims came ... More


Family Relationships and Cortisol in Everyday Life

Richard B. Slatcher

in Interpersonal Relationships and Health: Social and Clinical Psychological Mechanisms

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199936632
eISBN:
9780190223250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199936632.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

A growing body of research shows that people’s family environments have potent effects on the body’s stress physiology. This chapter provides an overview of the links between family relationships in ... More


Look How Far We Have Come: A Bit of Consilience in Elucidating the Role of Caregivers in Relationship to their Developing Primate Infants and Children

James J. McKenna

in Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution: Culture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199964253
eISBN:
9780199366828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964253.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

By virtue of more problem driven rather than discipline driven, integrated research methods and theories both anthropologists and psychologists are elucidating the neuro-hormonal processes underlying ... More


When Feeling and Doing Diverge: Neural and Physiological Correlates of the Empathy–Altruism Divide

Tony W. Buchanan and Stephanie D. Preston

in Positive Neuroscience

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780199977925
eISBN:
9780190608972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977925.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The spontaneous way in which people often come to feel the emotions of others is largely thought to explain empathy, including the ability to understand others, feel their emotions, and be motivated ... More


Immune and endocrine systems

Benedetti Fabrizio

in Placebo Effects: 2nd Edition: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198705086
eISBN:
9780191789151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705086.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Causes of distress-induced emotional eating

Tatjana van Strien

in Genes, brain, and emotions: Interdisciplinary and Translational Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198793014
eISBN:
9780191834745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198793014.003.0024
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

Distress is associated with both increased and decreased food intake, with eating less being the typical and predominant response. Distress is normally associated with physiological reactions that ... More


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