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Two-Dimensional Averaging Techniques

Joachim Frank

in Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies: Visualization of Biological Molecules in Their Native State

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195182187
eISBN:
9780199893416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182187.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter starts by listing the common sources of noise in the EM and how they can be addressed by averaging techniques. Conditions for digital sampling, or for the representation of an ... More


Classical statistical physics: One dimension

Jean Zinn-Justin

in Phase Transitions and Renormalization Group

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199227198
eISBN:
9780191711107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227198.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter, within the framework of classical statistical mechanics, discusses a family of models defined on one-dimensional lattices. It studies the simplest local examples: models that involve ... More


THERMODYNAMICS OF PLASMAS WITH DEVELOPED IONIZATION

V. E. Fortov, I. T. Iakubov, and A. G. Khrapak

in Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299805
eISBN:
9780191714948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299805.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The description of the thermodynamics of the strongly ionized plasma starts by discussing the most popular and well-studied model of the one-component plasma (OCP), which represents a system of point ... More


Overview of different characterizations of dynamic heterogeneity

Ludovic Berthier, Giulio Biroli, Jean‐Philippe Bouchaud, and Robert L. Jack

in Dynamical Heterogeneities in Glasses, Colloids, and Granular Media

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199691470
eISBN:
9780191729799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691470.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Dynamic heterogeneity is now recognized as a central aspect of structural relaxation in disordered materials with slow dynamics, and was the focus of intense research in the last decade. Here, this ... More


REFINEMENTS

Thierry Giamarchi

in Quantum Physics in One Dimension

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525004
eISBN:
9780191711909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525004.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents some additional complications that arise in addition to the simple Luttinger liquid theory for one-dimensional systems. Examples of pitfalls into which the bosonization ... More


SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES

C.G. GRAY, K.E. GUBBINS, and C.G. JOSLIN

in Theory of Molecular Fluids: Volume 2: Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780198556213
eISBN:
9780191729041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198556213.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Matters within the realm of spectroscopy—the interaction of molecules with radiation—are considered. The treatment focuses on three areas: the absorption and emission of infrared light, the ... More


Linear response theory

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter presents a universal definition of linear response, which at first is studied for the example of the damped oscillator. From the quantal time evolution operator lowest order transition ... More


Two-Dimensional Granular Gases

Nikolai V. Brilliantov and Thorsten Pöschel

in Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198530381
eISBN:
9780191713057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530381.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

It has been shown for molecular fluids that the velocity-time correlation function in ddimensions exhibits a power-law dependence for t >> 1. This function reveals a long time tail compared with an ... More


Transformation, convolution, and correlation

Bernhard Blümich

in NMR Imaging of Materials

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526766
eISBN:
9780191709524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526766.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Transformation, convolution, and correlation are used over and over again in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging in different contexts and sometimes with different meanings. The ... More


Scaling Behaviour In The Critical Domain

JEAN ZINN-JUSTIN

in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509233
eISBN:
9780191708732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Chapter 25 established the scaling behaviour of correlation functions at criticality, T = Tc . This chapter studies the critical domain which is defined by the property that the ... More


Analytical approaches to time‐ and length scales in models of glasses

Silvio Franz and Guilhem Semerjian

in Dynamical Heterogeneities in Glasses, Colloids, and Granular Media

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199691470
eISBN:
9780191729799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691470.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The goal of this chapter is to review recent analytical results about the growth of a (static) correlation length in glassy systems, and the connection that can be made between this length scale and ... More


Infants’ Attention to and Use of Functional Properties in Categorization

KELLY MADOLE and LISA OAKES

in Functional Features in Language and Space: Insights from Perception, Categorization, and Development

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199264339
eISBN:
9780191718519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199264339.003.0018
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter explores the development of infants' attention to object function and how function is used by infants in categorizing objects. It proposes a developmental progression wherein infants ... More


Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

Xiao-Gang Wen

in Quantum Field Theory of Many-Body Systems: From the Origin of Sound to an Origin of Light and Electrons

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199227259
eISBN:
9780191713019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227259.003.02
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces path integral and various correlation functions at zero and non-zero temperatures to study interacting quantum systems. Semi-classical approximation and instanton effects are ... More


Free Fermion Systems

Xiao-Gang Wen

in Quantum Field Theory of Many-Body Systems: From the Origin of Sound to an Origin of Light and Electrons

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199227259
eISBN:
9780191713019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227259.003.04
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses quantum theory of many-fermion systems. Various correlation functions and their related physical measurements are calculated for free fermion systems at both zero and non-zero ... More


The basic theory of neutron scattering

Rolf Hempelmann

in Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Solid State Diffusion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198517436
eISBN:
9780191706974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198517436.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses ways to describe theoretically neutron scattering as a probe for condensed matter, first the scattering on a rigidly bound and isolated nucleus by the neutron-nucleus ... More


CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS

Jean Zinn-Justin

in Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198566748
eISBN:
9780191717994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566748.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter provides a simple physical interpretation to the formal continuum limit that has led, from an integral over position variables corresponding to discrete times, to a path integral. It ... More


Conformal field theory

Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz

in Elements of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577224
eISBN:
9780191722943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The present chapter is an introductory account of the basic concepts and important consequences of conformal symmetry, i.e. the invariance under local scale transformations, in field theories ... More


The non-linear s-model

Jean Zinn-Justin

in Phase Transitions and Renormalization Group

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199227198
eISBN:
9780191711107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227198.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses the non-linear s-model, a field theory characterized by an orthogonal O(N) symmetry acting non-linearly on the fields. The study has several motivations. From the viewpoint of ... More


Interaction of light with matter

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter begins with a review of the semi-classical model of the interaction of charged particles with light, and then proceeds to the full quantum theory by replacing the classical fields with ... More


Lattice field theory fundamentals

M. Pilar HernÁndez

in Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199691609
eISBN:
9780191731792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691609.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter reviews the basic building blocks of the regularization of Quantum Field Theories (QFT) on a space-time lattice. It assumes some familiarity with QFT in the continuum. In an introductory ... More


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