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Pluralism: Against the Demand for Consensus

Nicholas Rescher

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198236016
eISBN:
9780191679162
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236016.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, General

This book presents a critical reaction against two currently influential tendencies of thought. On the one hand, it rejects the facile relativism that pervades contemporary social and academic life. ... More


The Foundations of the Rule of Law as a Moral Ideal

Raymond Plant

in The Neo-liberal State

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199281756
eISBN:
9780191713040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281756.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

Given that the rule of law as embodied in the basic nomocratic order of the neo‐liberal state is based upon a moral ideal, and given that these rules as constitutional rules can be seen as a ... More


Beyond “Compassion and Humanity”: Justice for Nonhuman Animals

Martha C. Nussbaum

in Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305104
eISBN:
9780199850556
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305104.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter discusses the application of the capabilities approach to the question of animal rights. It explains that this approach provides better theoretical guidance on the issue of animal ... More


The Self‐Interest‐Based Contractarian Response to the Skeptic

Anita M. Superson

in The Moral Skeptic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195376623
eISBN:
9780199871551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195376623.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

This chapter examines the self‐interest based contractarian response to the skeptic. Such contractarians (e.g., Gauthier) reject the Hobbesian strategy of demonstrating that every morally required ... More


Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This book shows how—despite significant equivocation—the most influential justifications of government and of private property rely on the seldom-questioned empirical premise that this book calls, ... More


Common Goals and the Ideal Social Contract

Allan Gibbard

in Reconciling Our Aims: In Search of Bases for Ethics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195370423
eISBN:
9780199851980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370423.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that the form of a coherent social contract will take is its social structure. It notes that Harsanyi's second welfare theorem shows that the anti-utilitarian picture will not fit ... More


Morals by Agreement

David Gauthier

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249924
eISBN:
9780191597497
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198249926.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This book defends the traditional conception of morality as a rational, impartial constraint on the pursuit of individual interest or benefit. The principal obstacle faced by this conception is that ... More


The Ring of Gyges

David Gauthier

in Morals by Agreement

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249924
eISBN:
9780191597497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198249926.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Is a rational morality a necessary evil—a mean between what an individual would judge best—bettering his situation at whatever cost to others, and worst—having one's situation worsened at other's ... More


LEGAL THEORY AND THE RATIONAL ACTOR

Claire. Finkelstein

in The Oxford Handbook of Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195145397
eISBN:
9780199752393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145399.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

On a view that emerges from the “law and economics movement,” the purpose of law is to ensure that when individual citizens seek to maximize their individual utility, they will incidentally maximize ... More


Political Theory and the Criminal Law

Matt Matravers

in Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199559152
eISBN:
9780191725265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559152.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter asks what contractarian political theory can tell us about the place of the criminal law, and of criminals, in a liberal society. It begins by distinguishing two forms of contractarian ... More


Equity: Conscience Goes to Market

Irit Samet

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198766773
eISBN:
9780191821042
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198766773.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

The Law of Equity is a unique junction where doctrinal private law, moral theory, and social perceptions of justice meet. This book explores the general principles that underlie Equity’s intervention ... More


Heterodox citizens? Conceptions of social rights and responsibilities

Daniel Edmiston

in Welfare, Inequality and Social Citizenship: Deprivation and Affluence in Austerity Britain

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781447337461
eISBN:
9781447337508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447337461.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter explores the extent to which the rich and the poor deviate or conform to the dominant ideals of citizenship. To do so, the chapter starts by outlining the key welfare discourses and ... More


Introduction

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

in Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter defines “the Hobbesian hypothesis” as the claim that the Lockean proviso is fulfilled: everyone benefits from the state and/or the property rights system. The chapter previews the book’s ... More


Modern Political Philosophy and Prehistoric Anthropology: Some Preliminary Issues

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

in Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Because this book involves two very different academic disciplines, political philosophy and anthropology, some background about the relevant topics in each one is helpful. In this chapter, Section 1 ... More


The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How a Colonial Prejudice Became an Essential Premise in the Most Popular Justification of Government

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

in Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter introduces the role of “the Hobbesian hypothesis” in social contract theory by discussing how Thomas Hobbes introduced it. It defines the version of “the Lockean proviso” relevant to ... More


The Hobbesian Hypothesis in Contemporary Political Theory

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

in Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter argues that “the Hobbesian hypothesis” (the claim that the Lockean proviso is fulfilled: everyone is better off in a state society with a private property system than they could ... More


Implications

Karl Widerquist and Grant S. McCall

in Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748678662
eISBN:
9781474430968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748678662.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Earlier chapters of this book found that the Hobbesian hypothesis is false; the Lockean proviso is unfulfilled; contemporary states and property rights systems fail to meet the standard that social ... More


Contractarianism, Animals, and Risk

Mark Rowlands

in The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262017060
eISBN:
9780262301602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262017060.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter argues that while some versions of contractarian moral theory preclude granting moral status to nonhumans, the most plausible, and the most influential, versions of this approach are not ... More


Bargained Justice

Albert Weale

in Modern Social Contract Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198853541
eISBN:
9780191887963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853541.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Gauthier’s Morals by Agreement assumes a laissez-faire original position, in which there is a perfectly competitive market where the equilibrium of individual choices is also economically optimal. ... More


Restitution and Distributive Justice

George F. DeMartino and Jonathan D. Moyer

in International Development and Human Aid: Principles, Norms and Institutions for the Global Sphere

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781474414470
eISBN:
9781474427005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474414470.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter explores the extent of consensus and disagreement among alternative contemporary accounts of justice on the matter of the kinds of events that might warrant restitution and, ... More


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