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The Diffusion of Soft Innovations

Paul Stoneman

in Soft Innovation: Economics, Product Aesthetics, and the Creative Industries

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572489
eISBN:
9780191722257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572489.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

This chapter considers alternative models of the demand for (diffusion of) soft innovations. From the several models, the list of factors shown to be important in the innovation process includes the ... More


Gorman Heterogeneous Households

Lars Peter Hansen and Thomas J. Sargent

in Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691042770
eISBN:
9781400848188
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691042770.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter describes methods for computing equilibria of economies with consumers who have heterogeneous preferences and endowments. It adopts simplifications that facilitate coping with ... More


Genetically Modified Organisms and the Public: Participation, Preferences, and Protest

Luc Bodiguel and Michael Cardwell

in The Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Approaches

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199542482
eISBN:
9780191594342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542482.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

There has been a high level of public engagement in the regulation of GMOs and this chapter seeks to explore this engagement, whether conducted through formal or informal channels. In the case of ... More


Choice under uncertainty

David M. Kreps

in A Course in Microeconomic Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691202754
eISBN:
9780691215747
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691202754.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter examines how many important consumption decisions concern choices, the consequences of which are uncertain at the time the choice is made. It begins with the theory of von ... More


Social choice and efficiency

David M. Kreps

in A Course in Microeconomic Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691202754
eISBN:
9780691215747
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691202754.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter evaluates the theory of social choice. The theory of social choice is concerned with the selection of some social outcome that affects a number of individuals, when those individuals ... More


Loss Aversion and Reference-dependent Preferences

John P. Burkett

in Microeconomics: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189629
eISBN:
9780199850778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189629.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter discusses microeconomics theories of reference-dependent consumer preferences and loss aversion. It provides evidence that under some circumstances preferences depend on a reference and ... More


The Assortment of Production

G. B. Richardson

in Information and Investment: A Study in the Working of the Competitive Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292432
eISBN:
9780191596810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292430.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The efficiency of resource allocation is normally considered in terms of a model that assumes a fixed list of goods and given consumer preferences. But it is necessary to consider also the nature of ... More


Assessing current sustainability of use

E. J. Milner-Gulland and Marcus Rowcliffe

in Conservation and Sustainable Use: A Handbook of Techniques

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198530367
eISBN:
9780191713095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530367.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter shows how data of the types discussed in Chapters 1 and 2 can be analysed to give an indication of sustainability in the present. A wide range of possible indicator variables is ... More


Patient and carer satisfaction

Nick Bosanquet and Chris Salisbury

in Providing a palliative care service: towards an evidence base

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192629913
eISBN:
9780191730153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192629913.003.0011
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Palliative Medicine Research

This chapter focuses on consumer preference for, and satisfaction with, the different types of palliative care. The term ‘consumer’ in palliative care refers to the patients, families, friends, and ... More


Integrating Payouts: Annuity Design and Public Pension Benefits in Mandatory Defined Contribution Plans

Olivia S. Mitchell and Kent Smetters

in The Pension Challenge: Risk Transfers and Retirement Income Security

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199266913
eISBN:
9780191601323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266913.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter examines alternative annuity designs, and the interactions between annuity preference and publicly provided safety net support. It is shown that with a minimum pension guarantee, the ... More


The Context and Framing of Choice

John P. Burkett

in Microeconomics: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189629
eISBN:
9780199850778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189629.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter examines two factors that influence consumer preferences: the context in which choices are made and the framing or description of alternatives. It explains that choice can be influenced ... More


The World Cocoa Market

Alfred Maizels, Robert Bacon, and George Mavrotas

in COMMODITY SUPPLY MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCING COUNTRIES: A Case-Study of the Tropical Beverage Crops

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233381
eISBN:
9780191678981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233381.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The demand for cocoa is derived from the demand for the final products cocoa is used in. Cocoa relies on the production of chocolate, as chocolate is further used in a wide variety of products and is ... More


Determinants of the Concentration in Beer Markets in Germany and the United States: 1950–2005

William James Adams

in The Economics of Beer

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199693801
eISBN:
9780191731884
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693801.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Between 1950 and 2000, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio for beer increased from twenty-two to ninety-five in the United States. In Germany, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio was ... More


Demand Functions

Yves Balasko

in General Equilibrium Theory of Value

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691146799
eISBN:
9781400838912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691146799.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Rational consumers are assumed to maximize their preferences subject to the constraints they perceive. With preferences that are representable by utility functions, the consumer's problem is modeled ... More


Preferences and Utility

Yves Balasko

in General Equilibrium Theory of Value

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691146799
eISBN:
9781400838912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691146799.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Classical consumer theory is essentially the theory of utility maximization under a budget constraint. This theory starts with the definition of consumers' preferences. In classical consumer theory, ... More


Trade Insulation as Social Protection

Quy-Toan Do, Andrei A. Levchenko, and Martin Ravallion

in The Economics of Food Price Volatility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226128924
eISBN:
9780226129082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129082.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In a world with volatile food prices, countries have an incentive to shelter their populations from the induced real income shocks. When some agents are net food producers while others are net ... More


Chocolate Brands and Preferences of Chinese Consumers

Di Mo, Scott Rozelle, and Linxiu Zhang

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Although global exporters, foreign producers, and domestic producers have been battling each other in China’s chocolate market for decades, it is not clear how Chinese consumers respond to the ... More


Demand for Nutrients in India, 1993–2004*

Raghav Gaiha, Raghbendra Jha, and Vani S. Kulkarni (eds)

in Diets, Malnutrition, and Disease: The Indian Experience

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780198099215
eISBN:
9780199084500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198099215.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

The Deaton–Dreze (2009) explanation of a decline in calorie intake despite rapid economic growth in terms of lower calorie ‘requirements’ is incomplete. This chapter fills this gap by taking into ... More


Consumer Considerations and the Agriculture of the Middle

Eileen Brady and Caitlin O’Brady

in Food and the Mid-Level Farm: Renewing an Agriculture of the Middle

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262122993
eISBN:
9780262278751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262122993.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter focuses on the change in the consumer preference from processed to fresh foods, which is responsible for the increase in small-size farm food production, and presents several incidents ... More


Granting Immunity: Authorisation and “Public Benefit”

Rex Ahdar

in The Evolution of Competition Law in New Zealand

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198855606
eISBN:
9780191889295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198855606.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Competition Law

This chapter analyses the authorisation mechanism—a demanding cost-benefit test for those applicants who seek advance approval of their potentially contravening conduct. The “public benefits” and ... More


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