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Evolutionary constraints and genotype spaces

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0206
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

An evolutionary constraint is a bias or limitation in genotypic or phenotypic variation that a biological system produces. Striking phenotypic examples include the absence of photosynthesis in higher ... More


Constrained Lagrangian Mechanics

Peter Mann

in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Dynamics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198822370
eISBN:
9780191861253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822370.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter builds on the previous two chapters to tackle constrained systems, using Lagrangian mechanics and constrained variations. The first section deals with holonomic constraint equations ... More


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