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Laws and Modalities in Scientific Practice

Joseph Rouse

in Articulating the World: Conceptual Understanding and the Scientific Image

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293677
eISBN:
9780226293707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293707.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter addresses how laws and natural necessity figure in scientific understanding, by developing and extending Marc Lange’s and John Haugeland’s complementary accounts of the role of laws in ... More


Any State or Event May Be a Reason for Which Somebody Does Something

Rüdiger Bittner

in Doing Things for Reasons

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143645
eISBN:
9780199833085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143647.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Given that reasons for which people do things are states of affairs and events in the world, are there additional restrictions on what can be a reason for what? Many writers have claimed that there ... More


Normative systems

Joseph Raz

in Practical Reason and Norms

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198268345
eISBN:
9780191683503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198268345.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter examines normative systems, that is, systems of norms. One regards the rules of a game or of a language, the laws of a country or the regulations and rules of a social club as forming a ... More


Constitutive Rules and Agency

Kirk Ludwig

in From Plural to Institutional Agency: Collective Action II

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198789994
eISBN:
9780191831560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789994.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Chapter 7 first analyzes the concept of a constitutive rule in terms of essentially intentional activity patterns. Then it defines a form of constitutive agency in terms of that. Finally, it ... More


What Is Assertion * ?

John MacFarlane

in Assertion: New Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199573004
eISBN:
9780191595127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573004.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

What is it to make an assertion? The literature contains four broad categories of answers: (1) To assert is to express an attitude. (2) To assert is to make a move defined by its constitutive rules. ... More


Correct reasoning

Andreas Müller

in Constructing Practical Reasons

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198754329
eISBN:
9780191904189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198754329.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

According to the account of practical reasons presented in Chapter 4, those reasons are ultimately grounded in the soundness of certain episodes of practical reasoning. This chapter addresses what it ... More


What Is Assertion? In Defense of the Norm-Based Account

Sanford C. Goldberg

in Assertion: On the Philosophical Significance of Assertoric Speech

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198732488
eISBN:
9780191796708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732488.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The speech act of assertion is introduced and its core features are described. Four accounts of assertion are presented: the attitudinal account (associated with Bach and Harnish), the common ground ... More


The Normativity of Meaning Revisited

Hans-Johann Glock

in The Normative Animal?: On the Anthropological Significance of Social, Moral, and Linguistic Norms

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190846466
eISBN:
9780190846497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190846466.003.0015
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The question of whether meaning is inherently normative has become a central topic in philosophy and linguistics. It also has crucial implications for anthropology and for understanding the evolution ... More


Summary and Conclusion

Kirk Ludwig

in From Plural to Institutional Agency: Collective Action II

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198789994
eISBN:
9780191831560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789994.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter summarizes in broad terms the work of the book, which focuses on how the multiple agents account of collective action can be extended to institutional and mob action. It reviews the ... More


Essentially Intentional Action Types

Kirk Ludwig

in From Plural to Institutional Agency: Collective Action II

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198789994
eISBN:
9780191831560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789994.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Chapter 6 lays groundwork for explaining what a constitutive rule is and how they underwrite certain important forms of constitutive agency by giving an analysis of the concept of a certain category ... More


Another Puzzle: A Competing Consensus

Brian Epstein

in The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199381104
eISBN:
9780199381128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199381104.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses a competing consensus about the relation between social facts and facts about individual people. This view, which is closely associated with John Searle, has been called the ... More


Grounding and Anchoring

Brian Epstein

in The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199381104
eISBN:
9780199381128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199381104.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents the author’s grounding−anchoring model of social ontology. It explains how the two competing traditions about the nature of the social world can be unified. Building on Searle’s ... More


Lying, Acting, and Asserting

Ishani Maitra

in Lying: Language, Knowledge, Ethics, and Politics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198743965
eISBN:
9780191866791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198743965.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter defends the intent-to-deceive conception of lying against the challenge posed by bald-faced lies. It argues that bald-faced lies aren’t lies, because they’re not assertions. The chapter ... More


Common Ground and Keeping Score

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Context

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199645169
eISBN:
9780191761379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645169.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter develops an account of the structure of the body of information that is the common ground, and of the role of that structure in explaining some of the ways that the common ground changes ... More


Assertion Norms

Jody Azzouni

in Attributing Knowledge: What It Means to Know Something

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780197508817
eISBN:
9780197508848
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197508817.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Assertion is a phenomenological category—that is, assertions are experienced as such by speaker-hearers. Speech-act phenomenology is distinguished from semantic perception. We not only experience ... More


Litigants as Authors of their Lives

Rabeea Assy

in Injustice in Person: The Right to Self-Representation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199687442
eISBN:
9780191767104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687442.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Procedural rules that are designed to facilitate the adjudication process are neither coercive nor restrictive. Rather, they are optional tools that enable individuals to achieve their goals. Respect ... More


From Plural to Institutional Agency: Collective Action II

Kirk Ludwig

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198789994
eISBN:
9780191831560
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789994.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Can institutional agency be understood in terms of informal (plural) group agency? This book argues that the answer is ‘yes’, and more specifically that both can be understood ultimately in terms of ... More


Against Conjunctivism

Brian Epstein

in The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199381104
eISBN:
9780199381128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199381104.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Conjunctivism is the view that anchors are just another kind of grounds, and therefore, that the grounding conditions for social facts are conjunctive: they include both grounds and anchors. ... More


Introduction: Objective Rules of Thought

Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa and Benjamin W. Jarvis

in The Rules of Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199661800
eISBN:
9780191748325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661800.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This introductory chapter begins by suggesting how philosophical anti-exceptionalism—the view that good philosophical inquiry is continuous with good inquiry considered more broadly—can be fruitfully ... More


Freedom, Reason, Ethics, and Aesthetics

Nalini Bhushan, Jay L. Garfield, and Daniel Raveh (eds)

in Contrary Thinking: Selected Essays of Daya Krishna

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199795550
eISBN:
9780190267636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199795550.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In this chapter, Daya Krishna reflects on freedom in relation to reason, ethics, and aesthetics. More specifically, he examines the constitutive role that the presupposition of freedom plays in our ... More


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