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Cognition and conditionals: An introduction

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This introductory chapter traces some of the history of the psychology of conditional reasoning, and the history of conditional logic and its formal semantics to provide an appropriate overview of ... More


Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The conditional, if…then, is probably the most important term in natural language and forms the core of systems of logic and mental representation. It occurs in all human languages and allows people ... More


Indicative conditionals: the psychological evidence

Jonathan St B T Evans and David E Over

in If

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525134
eISBN:
9780191728174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525134.003.03
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter examines the basic empirical findings on indicative conditionals when participants are asked to make inferences or judgements about them in the psychological laboratory, and compares ... More


Counterfactual and Other Forms of Conditional Reasoning: Children Lost in the Nearest Possible World

Josef Perner and Eva Rafetseder

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We distinguish different kinds of conditional reasoning and focus on basic (BCR) and counterfactual conditional reasoning (CFR). Both kinds of inferences use actual regularities in the (toy) world ... More


Towards a reconciliation of mental model theory and probabilistic theories of conditionals

Sonja M. Geiger and Klaus Oberauer

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter proposes a reconciliation of logical and probabilistic processes using theories with a longer psychological pedigree. In a detailed review of the recent empirical literature on ... More


Form and content: three illustrations

Keith Stenning

in Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198507741
eISBN:
9780191687211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507741.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents three cases which serve as vivid illustrations of a cognitive theory about the relationship between form and content. These three cases are as follows: conditional reasoning, ... More


The mental logic theory of conditional propositions

David O'Brien and Andrea Manfrinati

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter makes the case for the existence of various formal syntactic inference schemata in the human cognitive system. These inferential schemata must be applied to incoming verbal information ... More


A successive-conditionalization approach to conditional reasoning

In-mao Liu

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A distinction has often been made between occasions when people reason in accord with formal logical procedures and occasions when people reason pragmatically or plausibly. Recently, Rips (2001) ... More


Causal discounting and conditional reasoning in children

Nilufa Ali, Anne Schlottmann, Abigail Shaw, Nick Chater, and Mike Oaksford

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter investigates the influence of causal direction on conditional reasoning in children. It first outlines the conditional reasoning paradigm and the standard results. It then describes ... More


Conditional Reasoning Part I: Three Kinds of Conditionals and the Psychology of the Material Conditional

Peter Langland-Hassan

in Explaining Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198815068
eISBN:
9780191852886
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815068.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Three types of conditional are distinguished: the material conditional, indicative conditional, and subjunctive/counterfactual conditional. The apparent difference in truth conditions of each is ... More


Semantic memory retrieval, mental models, and the development of conditional inferences in children

Henry Markovits

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a multinomial process tree model for conditional reasoning, based on Markovits and Barrouillet's (2002) developmental theory of conditional reasoning. This model assumes that ... More


Introduction: Understanding Counterfactuals and Causation

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We provide an introduction to some of the key issues raised in this volume by considering how individual chapters bear on the prospects of what may be called a ‘counterfactual process view’ of causal ... More


A multi-layered dual-process approach to conditional reasoning

Niki Verschueren and Walter Schaeken

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that the dual-process framework can be used for describing different aspects of conditional reasoning. It argues for three processing levels, each of which introduces a particular ... More


Conditional Reasoning: The Unruly Syntactics, Semantics, Thematics, and Pragmatics of "If"

Raymond Nickerson

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780190202996
eISBN:
9780190249137
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190202996.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Conditional reasoning is reasoning that involves statements of the sort If A (Antecedent) then C (Consequent). This type of reasoning is ubiquitous; everyone engages in it. Indeed, the ability to do ... More


Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How are causal judgements such as ‘The ice on the road caused the traffic accident’ connected with counterfactual judgements such as ‘If there had not been any ice on the road, the traffic accident ... More


New Paradigm Psychology of Conditional Reasoning and Its Philosophical Sources

David Over

in Conditionals, Paradox, and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198712732
eISBN:
9780191781070
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198712732.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Philosophy of Language

There is a new Bayesian, or probabilistic, paradigm in the psychology of reasoning, with new psychological accounts of the indicative conditional of natural language and of conditional reasoning. ... More


Individual, community, and system: human implementation of representations

Keith Stenning

in Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198507741
eISBN:
9780191687211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507741.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents practical applications of graphical systems to behaviour and the human implementation of logic. A discussion on the implementation of systems in the affective structure is also ... More


Contraction, Rational Choice and Economy

Isaac Levi

in Mild Contraction: Evaluating Loss of Information Due to Loss of Belief

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199270705
eISBN:
9780191601774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270708.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The author considers the answers he favours over those of Rott and Pagnucco to two questions: what is to be required of a decision-theoretic rationale for a change in state of full belief? and should ... More


Final Comments

Raymond S. Nickerson

in Conditional Reasoning: The Unruly Syntactics, Semantics, Thematics, and Pragmatics of "If"

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780190202996
eISBN:
9780190249137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190202996.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The wrap-up chapter attempts to distinguish what we know about conditional reasoning—what we have learned from research—from what we do not know about it. The question of how conditional reasoning ... More


Getting Started

Raymond S. Nickerson

in Conditional Reasoning: The Unruly Syntactics, Semantics, Thematics, and Pragmatics of "If"

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780190202996
eISBN:
9780190249137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190202996.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter introduces the concept of conditional reasoning, illustrates many uses of “if,” and presents the plan for the remainder of the book.


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