*John Harwood*

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- August 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780816670390
- eISBN:
- 9781452946825
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- University of Minnesota Press
- DOI:
- 10.5749/minnesota/9780816670390.003.0004
- Subject:
- Architecture, Architectural History

This chapter initially looks at the architecture of IBM in relation to its early organized administrative strategies for real estate and building development. The IBM architecture started out with a ...
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This chapter initially looks at the architecture of IBM in relation to its early organized administrative strategies for real estate and building development. The IBM architecture started out with a comprehensive appearance and tendency towards a conservative image. The chapter then narrates the history and evolution of the IBM’s corporate image, starting from Thomas J. Watson Sr.’s reign as CEO up to the present, as manifested in the progression of its buildings’ architecture. The chapter also describes how the computer architectures and geographies illustrated here, including the Von Neumann architecture and physical infrastructure, gave rise to the use of computer aided-design (CAD).Less

This chapter initially looks at the architecture of IBM in relation to its early organized administrative strategies for real estate and building development. The IBM architecture started out with a comprehensive appearance and tendency towards a conservative image. The chapter then narrates the history and evolution of the IBM’s corporate image, starting from Thomas J. Watson Sr.’s reign as CEO up to the present, as manifested in the progression of its buildings’ architecture. The chapter also describes how the computer architectures and geographies illustrated here, including the Von Neumann architecture and physical infrastructure, gave rise to the use of computer aided-design (CAD).

*Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo, and Guy Theraulaz*

- Published in print:
- 1999
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195131581
- eISBN:
- 9780197561485
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195131581.003.0008
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

In the previous two chapters, foraging and division of labor were shown to be useful metaphors to design optimization and resource allocation algrithms. In this chapter, we will see that the ...
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In the previous two chapters, foraging and division of labor were shown to be useful metaphors to design optimization and resource allocation algrithms. In this chapter, we will see that the clustering and sorting behavior of ants has stimulated researchers to design new algorithms for data analysis and graph partitioning. Several species of ants cluster corpses to form a “cemetery,” or sort their larvae into several piles. This behavior is still not fully understood, but a simple model, in which agents move randomly in space and pick up and deposit items on the basis of local information, may account for some of the characteristic features of clustering and sorting in ants. The model can also be applied to data analysis and graph partitioning: objects with different attributes or the nodes of a graph can be considered items to be sorted. Objects placed next to each other by the sorting algorithm have similar attributes, and nodes placed next each other by the sorting algorithm are tightly connected in the graph. The sorting algorithm takes place in a two-dimensional space, thereby offering a low-dimensional representation of the objects or of the graph. Distributed clustering, and more recently sorting, by a swarm of robots have served as benchmarks for swarm-based robotics. In all cases, the robots exhibit extremely simple behavior, act on the basis of purely local information, and communicate indirectly except for collision avoidance. In several species of ants, workers have been reported to form piles of corpses— literally cemeteries—to clean up their nests. Chretien [72] has performed experiments with the ant Lasius niger to study the organization of cemeteries. Other experiments on the ant Pheidole pallidula are also reported in Deneubourg et al. [88], and many species actually organize a cemetery. Figure 4.1 shows the dynamics of cemetery organization in another ant, Messor sancta. If corpses, or, more precisely, sufficiently large parts of corposes are randomly distributed in space at the beginning of the experiment, the workers form cemetery clusters within a few hours.
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In the previous two chapters, foraging and division of labor were shown to be useful metaphors to design optimization and resource allocation algrithms. In this chapter, we will see that the clustering and sorting behavior of ants has stimulated researchers to design new algorithms for data analysis and graph partitioning. Several species of ants cluster corpses to form a “cemetery,” or sort their larvae into several piles. This behavior is still not fully understood, but a simple model, in which agents move randomly in space and pick up and deposit items on the basis of local information, may account for some of the characteristic features of clustering and sorting in ants. The model can also be applied to data analysis and graph partitioning: objects with different attributes or the nodes of a graph can be considered items to be sorted. Objects placed next to each other by the sorting algorithm have similar attributes, and nodes placed next each other by the sorting algorithm are tightly connected in the graph. The sorting algorithm takes place in a two-dimensional space, thereby offering a low-dimensional representation of the objects or of the graph. Distributed clustering, and more recently sorting, by a swarm of robots have served as benchmarks for swarm-based robotics. In all cases, the robots exhibit extremely simple behavior, act on the basis of purely local information, and communicate indirectly except for collision avoidance. In several species of ants, workers have been reported to form piles of corpses— literally cemeteries—to clean up their nests. Chretien [72] has performed experiments with the ant Lasius niger to study the organization of cemeteries. Other experiments on the ant Pheidole pallidula are also reported in Deneubourg et al. [88], and many species actually organize a cemetery. Figure 4.1 shows the dynamics of cemetery organization in another ant, Messor sancta. If corpses, or, more precisely, sufficiently large parts of corposes are randomly distributed in space at the beginning of the experiment, the workers form cemetery clusters within a few hours.

*Shiro Kobayashi, Soo-Ik Oh, and Taylan Altan*

- Published in print:
- 1989
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195044027
- eISBN:
- 9780197560006
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195044027.003.0009
- Subject:
- Chemistry, Materials Chemistry

The concept of the finite-element procedure may be dated back to 1943 when Courant approximated the warping function linearly in each of an assemblage of triangular elements to the St. Venant ...
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The concept of the finite-element procedure may be dated back to 1943 when Courant approximated the warping function linearly in each of an assemblage of triangular elements to the St. Venant torsion problem and proceeded to formulate the problem using the principle of minimum potential energy. Similar ideas were used later by several investigators to obtain the approximate solutions to certain boundary-value problems. It was Clough who first introduced the term “finite elements” in the study of plane elasticity problems. The equivalence of this method with the well-known Ritz method was established at a later date, which made it possible to extend the applications to a broad spectrum of problems for which a variational formulation is possible. Since then numerous studies have been reported on the theory and applications of the finite-element method. In this and next chapters the finite-element formulations necessary for the deformation analysis of metal-forming processes are presented. For hot forming processes, heat transfer analysis should also be carried out as well as deformation analysis. Discretization for temperature calculations and coupling of heat transfer and deformation are discussed in Chap. 12. More detailed descriptions of the method in general and the solution techniques can be found in References [3-5], in addition to the books on the finite-element method listed in Chap. 1. The path to the solution of a problem formulated in finite-element form is described in Chap. 1 (Section 1.2). Discretization of a problem consists of the following steps: (1) describing the element, (2) setting up the element equation, and (3) assembling the element equations. Numerical analysis techniques are then applied for obtaining the solution of the global equations. The basis of the element equations and the assembling into global equations is derived in Chap. 5. The solution satisfying eq. (5.20) is obtained from the admissible velocity fields that are constructed by introducing the shape function in such a way that a continuous velocity field over each element can be denned uniquely in terms of velocities of associated nodal points.
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The concept of the finite-element procedure may be dated back to 1943 when Courant approximated the warping function linearly in each of an assemblage of triangular elements to the St. Venant torsion problem and proceeded to formulate the problem using the principle of minimum potential energy. Similar ideas were used later by several investigators to obtain the approximate solutions to certain boundary-value problems. It was Clough who first introduced the term “finite elements” in the study of plane elasticity problems. The equivalence of this method with the well-known Ritz method was established at a later date, which made it possible to extend the applications to a broad spectrum of problems for which a variational formulation is possible. Since then numerous studies have been reported on the theory and applications of the finite-element method. In this and next chapters the finite-element formulations necessary for the deformation analysis of metal-forming processes are presented. For hot forming processes, heat transfer analysis should also be carried out as well as deformation analysis. Discretization for temperature calculations and coupling of heat transfer and deformation are discussed in Chap. 12. More detailed descriptions of the method in general and the solution techniques can be found in References [3-5], in addition to the books on the finite-element method listed in Chap. 1. The path to the solution of a problem formulated in finite-element form is described in Chap. 1 (Section 1.2). Discretization of a problem consists of the following steps: (1) describing the element, (2) setting up the element equation, and (3) assembling the element equations. Numerical analysis techniques are then applied for obtaining the solution of the global equations. The basis of the element equations and the assembling into global equations is derived in Chap. 5. The solution satisfying eq. (5.20) is obtained from the admissible velocity fields that are constructed by introducing the shape function in such a way that a continuous velocity field over each element can be denned uniquely in terms of velocities of associated nodal points.