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Developing the New Product Design

P. A. Geroski

in The Evolution of New Markets

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248896
eISBN:
9780191596308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248893.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Explains how from a muddle of product proliferation, emerges a dominant design. It begins by noting the interest that both consumers and producers have to standardize products. Then identifies the ... More


Taxation: Re-Modernizing Legacy IT and Getting Taxpayers Online

Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margetts, Simon Bastow, and Jane Tinkler

in Digital Era Governance: IT Corporations, the State, and e-Government

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199296194
eISBN:
9780191700750
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296194.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Political Economy

Tax administration has a special centrality within public management. The bureaucracies that collect taxes are closely watched over by the Treasury or finance ministry and by legislatures or their ... More


Tracking the Design Process

Giovan Francesco Lanzara

in Shifting Practices: Reflections on Technology, Practice, and Innovation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262034456
eISBN:
9780262332309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034456.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

Chapter 1 tracks the design of the new computer music system in the computer music laboratory of the Institute. It presents the institutional setting of the Music LOGO project and tracks the early ... More


The Wicked Nature of Information Security

Andrew J. Stewart

in A Vulnerable System: The History of Information Security in the Computer Age

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9781501758942
eISBN:
9781501759048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501758942.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter studies the wicked nature of information security. It has always been unlikely that there will be a breakthrough in any one specific area of information security that will solve the ... More


Usable Security, Economics, and Psychology

Andrew J. Stewart

in A Vulnerable System: The History of Information Security in the Computer Age

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9781501758942
eISBN:
9781501759048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501758942.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter addresses how the human user of a computer is in a prime position to act in ways that could compromise the security of the entire system. It looks at the harmful technocratic paternalism ... More


Body and symbol in AutoTutor: Conversations that are responsive to the learners' cognitive and emotional states

Arthur C Graesser and G Tanner Jackson

in Symbols and Embodiment: Debates on meaning and cognition

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199217274
eISBN:
9780191696060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217274.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes AutoTutor as a computer system that holds conversations with people in natural language. This computer system attempts to interpret the language and emotions of the learner in ... More


The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

John Johnston

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This book examines new forms of nascent life that emerge through technical interactions within human-constructed environments—“machinic life”—in the sciences of cybernetics, artificial life, and ... More


The History of Open Source

Josh Lerner and Mark Schankerman

in The Comingled Code: Open Source and Economic Development

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014632
eISBN:
9780262289573
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014632.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter examines the origins and evolution of the open source software sector. It discusses the three distinct areas of open source development. These include the development of many of the key ... More


The General Headquarters Operational System and Military Intelligence

Pesach Malovany IDF (Ret.), Amatzia Baram, Kevin M. Woods, and Ronna Englesberg

in Wars of Modern Babylon: A History of the Iraqi Army from 1921 to 2003

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780813169439
eISBN:
9780813169514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813169439.003.0046
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter deals with the Operational system of the Iraqi armed forces. It describes the Operations Division of the General Staff, its missions and responsibilities and its development, especially ... More


The Coming Together

Maury Klein

in Union Pacific: The Reconfiguration: America's Greatest Railroad from 1969 to the Present

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780195369892
eISBN:
9780190254636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195369892.003.0012
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines how Union Pacific Railroad's merger with Western Pacific Railroad and Missouri Pacific Railroad came together. The merger of two major railroads is a complex task because it ... More


The New Story in Biology: Parts and Wholes in the Web of Life

Robert L. Nadeau

in Rebirth of the Sacred: Science, Religion, and the New Environmental Ethos

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199942367
eISBN:
9780197563298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199942367.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

In July of 1969 the Apollo 11 spacecraft emerged from the dark side of the moon and the on-board camera panned through the vast emptiness of outer space. Against the backdrop of interstellar night ... More


A Quick Introduction to Benfordʼs Law

Steven J. Miller

in Benford's Law: Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691147611
eISBN:
9781400866595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691147611.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides a brief overview of Benford's law. It states Benford's law of digit bias and describes its history. The chapter then discusses the origins of Benford's law and gives numerous ... More


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