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Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula and Iwona Bialynicka-Birula

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198531005
eISBN:
9780191713033
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198531005.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book covers a wide range of subjects concerning the use of computer modeling to solve a diverse set of problems. The book covers some advanced topics (cellular automata, Shannon measure of ... More


At the Foot of Pompey’s Statue: Reconceiving Rome’s Theatrum Lapideum

Hugh Denard

in Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262962
eISBN:
9780191734533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262962.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Methodology and Techniques

This chapter discusses the emergence of virtual reality (VR) technologies which have advanced the understanding of ancient structures. In 1998, through the funding of the British Academy and the ... More


Models of Mind

Kathleen V. Wilkes

in Real People: Personal Identity without Thought Experiments

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240808
eISBN:
9780191680281
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240808.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter offers a self-indulgent account of the different views of the person by Homer, Aristotle, the post-Cartesians, and contemporary cognitive science with its ‘computer model of mind’. It ... More


Modeling and Iconization

Inge Hinterwaldner

in The Systemic Image: A New Theory of Interactive Real-Time Simulations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035040
eISBN:
9780262335546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035040.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

Informed with how modelling practices take place, positions in model theory have revised too simplistic syntactic or semantic views. Analogously, it is now necessary to recognize that also the ... More


The East-West Politics of Global Modeling

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter focuses on computer-based global modeling, a new technology of knowledge production that emerged in the early 1970s and played an important, transformative role in Soviet governance by ... More


Multisensory Control of Movement

Alain Berthoz (ed.)

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547853
eISBN:
9780191724268
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547853.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Truly international, this extensive text combines the efforts of eight laboratories from seven countries in investigating the study of problems of manipulation, orienting, and navigating in humans ... More


Using Public Health Data to Evaluate Screening Programs: Application to Prostate Cancer

Ruth Etzioni, Larry Kessler, and Dante Dl Tommaso

in Monitoring the Health of Populations: Statistical Principles and Methods for Public Health Surveillance

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146493
eISBN:
9780199864928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146493.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the use of computer modeling to quantify the link between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Data resources for both cancer ... More


From Nuclear Winter to the Anthropocene

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter looks at the nuclear winter project, an outcome of global modeling. The idea that the Earth could be plunged into a “nuclear winter” as the catastrophic outcome of a nuclear war was ... More


Sensorimotor Integration

Patricia S. Churchland and Terrence J. Sejnowski

in The Computational Brain

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533393
eISBN:
9780262339650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533393.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter examines the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration by discussing three cases where anatomical and physiological studies of circuits are co-evolving with computer models of the ... More


A Nuclear Winter's Tale: Science and Politics in the 1980s

Lawrence Badash

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012720
eISBN:
9780262258531
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012720.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The nuclear winter phenomenon burst upon the public’s consciousness in 1983. Added to the horror of a nuclear war’s immediate effects was the fear that the smoke from fires ignited by the explosions ... More


Generalizability of trials and implementation of research into practice

Heiner Grosskurth and Lilani Kumaranayake

in Effective Sexual Health Interventions: Issues in Experimental Evaluation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508496
eISBN:
9780191723797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508496.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers a wide range of issues relating to the generalizability of effective interventions. It begins by looking at factors that determine the extent to which the observed effects in a ... More


The Forest in the Computer: New Metaphors for Nature

Daniel B. Botkin

in The Moon in the Nautilus Shell: Discordant Harmonies Reconsidered

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199913916
eISBN:
9780190267919
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Discontinued
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199913916.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines how technology is revolutionizing our perception of nature by looking at the comparison of bacteria to computers. More specifically, it shows how computers are providing new ... More


Acid Rain: Scientific Expertise and Governance across the Systemic Divide

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter details the development of the regional air pollution information and simulation model (RAINS) in 1984, a project which has been retrospectively described as one of the highest ... More


A Frenzy of Research

Lawrence Badash

in A Nuclear Winter's Tale: Science and Politics in the 1980s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012720
eISBN:
9780262258531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012720.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The fact that some of the computer models used in nuclear winter research were derived from others raised concern that many scientists were reaching the same conclusions. Those who studied the ... More


Social Networks and Computer Models

István Czachesz

in Cognitive Science and the New Testament: A New Approach to Early Christian Research

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198779865
eISBN:
9780191825880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198779865.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, Religious Studies

This chapter examines the interface of cognitive and social factors in the spread of early Christianity. The first part of the chapter discusses how early Christian preferences for itinerancy, the ... More


Creativity and Artificial Intelligence: A Contradiction in Terms?

Margaret A. Boden

in The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199836963
eISBN:
9780199362547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Mind

This is a philosophical question, not a scientific one. There are many examples of AI systems whose products appear to be creative and whose processing fits the criteria of combination, exploration, ... More


Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Kristine C. Harper

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

For much of the first half of the twentieth century, meteorology was more art than science, dependent on an individual forecaster’s lifetime of local experience. This book tells the story of the ... More


Scientific Progress and Controversy

Lawrence Badash

in A Nuclear Winter's Tale: Science and Politics in the 1980s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012720
eISBN:
9780262258531
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012720.003.0019
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nuclear winter scientists not only attended meetings of the bodies that undertook studies on the phenomenon, but also participated in lectures and conferences. For example, Richard Turco and Owen ... More


Habitat assessment and species niche modeling

E. Johanna Rode, Carrie J. Stengel, and K. Anne-Isola Nekaris

in Primate Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199659449
eISBN:
9780191774775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659449.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter presents an overview of classic habitat assessment techniques, how such studies can be carried out on various budgets, and with a range of equipment from traditional to modern. It also ... More


Reliability without Truth

in Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226902029
eISBN:
9780226902050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226902050.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the source of credibility of computer simulation models. It suggests that the practice of using fictions in building credible simulations is worthy of closer scrutiny by ... More


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