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Intellectual Property and Health in Developing Countries

Jean Tirole

in Understanding Poverty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195305197
eISBN:
9780199783519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195305191.003.0020
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay focuses on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on low- and middle-income countries’ health care. There are two different reasons why poor countries may not have access to ... More


Compulsory Licenses under TRIPS: An Introduction

Cynthia M. Ho

in Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patents and Related Rights

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195390124
eISBN:
9780199894536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter aims to bring clarity to the contentious and confusing question of what types of compulsory licenses are permissible under TRIPS. It first clarifies the actual TRIPS rules on compulsory ... More


Compulsory License Case Study: An Introduction to Competing Patent Perspectives

Cynthia M. Ho

in Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patents and Related Rights

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195390124
eISBN:
9780199894536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter builds upon the basic rules for compulsory licenses under TRIPS (Chapter 5) and also provides a complementary examination of compulsory licenses. It introduces competing patent ... More


Complicated Compulsory Licenses: The Waiver/Article 31bis “Solution”

Cynthia M. Ho

in Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patents and Related Rights

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195390124
eISBN:
9780199894536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter explains an important, yet often misunderstood exception to the TRIPS requirement that a compulsory license must be issued predominantly for domestic use (except where issued to address ... More


Compulsory Licensing: Local Working in Global Economy

Feroz Ali

in The Access Regime: Patent Law Reforms for Affordable Medicines

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199463480
eISBN:
9780199086344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463480.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The shift from working models of inventions to written disclosures allowed patentees to license inventions solely on the basis of the written specification that passed muster at the patent office. ... More


The WIPO Development Agenda in an Historical and Political Context

Pedro Roffe and Gina Vea

in The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342109
eISBN:
9780199866823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342109.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter traces the chain of events and political debate surrounding the evolution of the international intellectual property (IP) architecture from the establishment of the Paris Convention in ... More


Trips Patent Regime: The Poverty Penalty

Srividhya Ragavan

in Patent and Trade Disparities in Developing Countries

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199840670
eISBN:
9780199949786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199840670.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter discusses the issue of access-to-medication in developing countries. It notes that these developing countries have struggled to balance patent rights with the issue of ... More


Patent and Trade Disparities in Developing Countries

Srividhya Ragavan

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199840670
eISBN:
9780199949786
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199840670.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

For developing countries, the concept of sustainable development, as opposed to rapid pockets of development, embodies great promise for socio-political reasons. Most analyses of development, ... More


Public Policies to Stimulate Development of Vaccines for Neglected Diseases

Michael Kremer

in Understanding Poverty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195305197
eISBN:
9780199783519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195305191.003.0021
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay focuses on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on low-and middle-income countries’ health care. There are two different reasons why poor countries may not have access to ... More


A New Approach to the Compulsory License Conundrum

Cynthia M. Ho

in Patent Law in Global Perspective

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199334278
eISBN:
9780199361106
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199334278.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter addresses the controversial topic of compulsory licenses by considering the international legal framework in conjunction with insights from social science research. The chapter suggests ... More


What’s Good for Us is Good for You: The Transnational Pharmaceutical Sector and Mexico’s Internationalist Patent System

Kenneth C. Shadlen

in Coalitions and Compliance: The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Patents in Latin America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780199593903
eISBN:
9780191845574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199593903.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter analyses the political economy of continuity in Mexico. High levels of patenting and accentuated transnational dominance of the pharmaceutical industry, both functions of the choices of ... More


Multilateral Agreements and Policy Opportunities

Carlos M. Correa

in Intellectual Property Rights: Legal and Economic Challenges for Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199660759
eISBN:
9780191749186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660759.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

The multilateral rules on intellectual property rights set out by the TRIPS Agreement limit the WTO members’ room to use foreign protected technologies for local production. However, governments ... More


Patents, Copyright, and Neighboring Rights

in No Law: Intellectual Property in the Image of an Absolute First Amendment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804745789
eISBN:
9780804763271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804745789.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter presents a comparison of copyright and patent law in terms of their constitutional origins, originality, term limits, subject matter, securing protection, and exclusive rights and nature ... More


Patent Policy in the Shadows of Over-Compliance: Neo-Developmentalism in Brazil

Kenneth C. Shadlen

in Coalitions and Compliance: The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Patents in Latin America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780199593903
eISBN:
9780191845574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199593903.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

Brazil altered course in the second period of patent politics, as successive governments introduced revisions to the new patent system to address the consequences of over-compliance in the 1990s. ... More


TRIPS and TRIPS-Plus Development in India

Reddy T Prashant

in Intellectual Property, Trade and Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199684700
eISBN:
9780191767562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199684700.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter traces the development of India’s patent and copyright policy over the last sixty years. Shortly after independence, India replaced its British-era copyright and patent legislation with ... More


The Access Regime: Patent Law Reforms for Affordable Medicines

Feroz Ali

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199463480
eISBN:
9780199086344
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199463480.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

India’s post-TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) patent law reforms, which incorporates a remarkable array of flexibilities is seen as a counter-harmonization measure in ... More


CCR5 and HIV/AIDS Diagnostics and Therapeutics

Myles W. Jackson

in The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028660
eISBN:
9780262327190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028660.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the last years of the 20th century, the CCR5 gene and its protein product became the objects of state-of-the-art work on diagnostics and drug treatment. The CCR5 patent’s lineage is now the ... More


The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Patents

Kenneth C. Shadlen

in Coalitions and Compliance: The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical Patents in Latin America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780199593903
eISBN:
9780191845574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199593903.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

The chapter provides brief introductions to intellectual property, patents, and pharmaceuticals to help the reader understand the nature of the enduring conflicts in this area. Prior to the 1990s few ... More


Human Genes, Plants, and the Distributive Implications of Patents

Shobita Parthasarathy

in Patent Politics: Life Forms, Markets, and the Public Interest in the United States and Europe

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226437859
eISBN:
9780226437996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226437996.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on recent US and European conflicts over patents on human genes and plants. Both raise distributive concerns about the socioeconomic implications of patents and how patents may ... More


Copyright as a Component of the Music Industry

Dave Laing

in The Business of Music

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853235286
eISBN:
9781846312717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853235286.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter examines the role of intellectual property rights in relation to the music business and argues that enforcement of the law would benefit struggling artists as well as large corporations. ... More


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