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Complex Sentences

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0012
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

The distinction between coordination and subordination is not clear-cut. The essence of coordination is the mental juxtaposition of structures construed as parallel and co-equal. Subordination has a ... More


The Future in Greek: From Ancient to Medieval

Theodore Markopoulos

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199539857
eISBN:
9780191716317
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539857.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, Historical Linguistics

This book investigates the development of three future‐referring constructions in Greek, namely “μέλλω / œχω / θέλω + Infinitive / complement clause” in the classical (5th–4th c. BC), the ... More


Competence with Demonstratives

James Higginbotham

in Tense, Aspect, and Indexicality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239313
eISBN:
9780191716904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239313.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter argues that the impression of conflict between the aim of preserving perspective and the aim of preserving reference — induced by the distinction between those aspects of language use ... More


Why is Sequence of Tense Obligatory?

James Higginbotham

in Tense, Aspect, and Indexicality

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239313
eISBN:
9780191716904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239313.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter discusses the sequence of tense in complement clauses and object relative clauses. It shows how, given very simple semantic principles, the basic semantic phenomena associated with ... More


lex-headed Auxiliary Verb Constructions

Gregory D. S. Anderson

in Auxiliary Verb Constructions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199280315
eISBN:
9780191707186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280315.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter addresses the LEX-headed inflectional pattern. In this construction, the lexical verb bears all the obligatory inflectional categories, and the auxiliary verb may appear in an ... More


Doubled Inflection

Gregory D. S. Anderson

in Auxiliary Verb Constructions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199280315
eISBN:
9780191707186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280315.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter discusses the ‘doubled’ inflectional pattern. Unlike the previous two patterns of inflection where the auxiliary verb (AUX-headed) or the lexical verb (LEX-headed) serves as the ... More


The Origins of Patterns of Inflection in Auxiliary Verb Constructions

Gregory D. S. Anderson

in Auxiliary Verb Constructions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199280315
eISBN:
9780191707186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280315.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter discusses the historical syntax, morphosyntax, and semantics of the developments of auxiliary verb constructions. It begins with an overview of the original structures that gave rise to ... More


Constructions: Descriptive Factors

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Constructions are characterized in terms of four basic factors: correspondences, profiling, elaboration, and constituency. Correspondences are the basis for semantic and grammatical integration; they ... More


How Do Antibodies Work?

William R. Clark

in In Defense of Self: How the Immune System Really Works

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195336634
eISBN:
9780199868568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336634.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter delves further into how antibodies actually function in eliminating foreign materials from bodily fluids. Antibodies by themselves are relatively ineffective in eliminating foreign ... More


The to-infinitive as goal-argument

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter argues that some purpose adjuncts were reinterpreted as GOAL-arguments of conatives and verbs of persuading and urging. This involved a semantic change of the higher verb. Verbs meaning ... More


Intention

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter argues that the occurrence of the to-infinitive after verbs expressing meanings like ‘intend’ or ‘want’, or the negative counterparts ‘fear’ or ‘avoid’ represents an innovation. Unlike ... More


Commanding and permitting

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter identifies a second set of ditransitive verbs: the verbs of commanding and permitting. Unlike the verbs of persuading and urging discussed in the Chapter 3, which have a thematic ... More


Commissives

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter focuses on a third type of ditransitive: commissives, with meanings like ‘promise’. The commissives are interesting in that finite clauses are still their preferred complement in ... More


The category of the to-infinitive

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter argues that the to-infinitive cannot be analysed as a prepositional phrase in Old English. Its distribution is no longer that of a to-PP, its dative inflection has fossilized and does ... More


The rise of to-infinitival Exceptional Case-Marking

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter discusses the rise of to-infinitival Exceptional Case-Marking (ECM) constructions as in, He believes the results to be unscientific, in late Middle English. It argues that a distinction ... More


Structuring Sense: Introductory Comments

Hagit Borer

in Structuring Sense Volume I: In Name Only

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199263905
eISBN:
9780191718182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263905.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of words and structures, and the way in which they interact with grammar. It then discusses the syntax-semantics interface, projecting functional ... More


From Question to Subordination

Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva

in The Changing Languages of Europe

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297337
eISBN:
9780191711220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

In most languages of Europe, there is a polysemy pattern to the effect that one and the same marker (e.g., English who) is used to introduce both questions and subordinate clauses. This situation is ... More


Early Medieval Greek (5th–10th c. AD): the misty transition

Theodore Markopoulos

in The Future in Greek: From Ancient to Medieval

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199539857
eISBN:
9780191716317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539857.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, Historical Linguistics

The Early Medieval period (5th–10th c.) is examined here. Despite the lack of reliable textual sources, a careful investigation of the available material shows the sociolinguistic situation ... More


The Coordination—Subordination Continuum

William Croft

in Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198299554
eISBN:
9780191708091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

The distinction between coordination and subordination is claimed to be a structural universal. However, the structural criteria used to distinguish coordination from subordination do not match up ... More


Antisymmetry and Japanese

Richard S. Kayne

in Movement and Silence

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179163
eISBN:
9780199788330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179163.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter discusses antisymmetry and returns to the question of prepositions, by addressing the question of how the syntax of postpositions is to be integrated into the above-verb phrase ... More


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