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The Preconditions for Revolution in the USSR

Vladimir Mau and Irina Starodubrovskaya

in The Challenge of Revolution: Contemporary Russia in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241507
eISBN:
9780191599835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241503.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the reasons why the Soviet command economy proved unable to achieve the level of modernization required for its survival. It demonstrates how the control of the Communist Party ... More


Transition, Health Production, and Medical System Effectiveness

Christopher Davis

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Before the transition period in the Eastern European countries during the Soviet Union era, healthcare systems within these countries were controlled by the governments of the said countries. ... More


Economic Values

Robert Rohrschneider

in Learning Democracy: Democratic and Economic Values in Unified Germany

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198295174
eISBN:
9780191685088
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295174.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter looks into the economic sector by examining the economic values of eastern and western Germans. The chapter first discusses the dissatisfaction of eastern Germans with the inefficient ... More


Growth and Infrastructure

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Inadequate infrastructure is a serious constraint on the growth potential of developing economies. A growing economy can take advantage of any given infrastructure if the infrastructure can handle ... More


Economic Cybernetics and Its Limits

Benjamin Peters

in How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262034180
eISBN:
9780262334198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034180.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter examines the emergence of economic cybernetics in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a field closely allied to mathematical economics and econometrics yet peculiar to the Soviet sphere. ... More


Technical progress as a Spillover

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Technical progress may be viewed as the conscious result of research and development, or as an unplanned by-product of the process of privately conducted economic activities. This chapter looks at a ... More


The Fiscal Crisis of the Old Regime

Gerald M. Easter

in Capital, Coercion, and Postcommunist States

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451195
eISBN:
9780801465710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451195.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter provides a historical overview of the systemic fiscal crisis that triggered the collapse of communism and the emergence of postcommunist states. It examines postcommunist state building ... More


Growth in Private and Command Economies

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter describes a fully planned economy and examines the optimal path a planner will choose. It introduces elements of control theory, an important mathematical tool employed by modern growth ... More


Liberties and Litigation

James E. Shaw

in The Justice of Venice: Authorities and Liberties in the Urban Economy, 1550-1700

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263778
eISBN:
9780191734823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263778.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The guilds were essential allies in the operation of the regulatory system, which can be considered an early-modern example of a public/private partnership. Not only were the guilds the chief ... More


The Mortality Consequences of the Transition to Market Economy in Latvia, 1991–1995

Juris Krumins and Uldis Usackis

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Latvia — as well as its neighbouring countries of Estonia and Lithuania forming the Baltic States — enjoyed a remarkable healthcare system resulting in a life ... More


Technical progress as a Conscious Economic Activity-I: Human Capital Formation

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter describes models that recognize technical progress as a conscious economic activity. It examines labour skills acquired through the use of resources diverted away from the production of ... More


Technical progress as a Conscious Economic Activity — II

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter discusses the association between knowledge-based specialization and economic growth. By considering the link between economic growth and knowledge accumulation, the chapter views ... More


The Landscape Transformed (1960–1961)

Arvid Nelson

in Cold War Ecology: Forests, Farms, and People in the East German Landscape, 1945-1989

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300106602
eISBN:
9780300130300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300106602.003.0006
Subject:
History, Environmental History

During the 1950s, the East German landscape emerged as an arena for class warfare and the frontline of the cold war. Despite a rhetoric of reform and ecology, the biological or economic structures ... More


Forging Broadband for the Commanding-Heights Economy: State-Business Relations in Networking

Yu Hong

in Networking China: The Digital Transformation of the Chinese Economy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780252040917
eISBN:
9780252099434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040917.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

To explicate the ascent of the internet into a primary site of economic restructuring, this chapter historicizes broadband internet in China, focusing on the evolving political economy of networks ... More


Why Should the Soviet-Type Economic System be Reformed?

Wu Jinglian, Ma Guochuan, Xiaofeng Hua, and Nancy Hearst

in Whither China?: Restarting the Reform Agenda

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780190223151
eISBN:
9780190223182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190223151.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

How did the command-economy system come into being, and what were its defects that led to calls for reform in countries where it had been established? This dialogue reviews the historical evolution ... More


State Meets Society in the Transitional Tax Regime

Gerald M. Easter

in Capital, Coercion, and Postcommunist States

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451195
eISBN:
9780801465710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451195.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter examines why people pay taxes by focusing on the way in which the state interacted with society in the transitional tax regime. It first discusses Poland's transitional tax regime, which ... More


Other Major Issues: Growth, Scale Effects and Inequality

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter examines two important developments in endogenous growth theory: the scale effect of human capital on economic growth and two models that were developed to assess the impact of growth on ... More


Reforms of the Economic Administration System During the Maoist Era

Wu Jinglian, Ma Guochuan, Xiaofeng Hua, and Nancy Hearst

in Whither China?: Restarting the Reform Agenda

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780190223151
eISBN:
9780190223182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190223151.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

With China’s changed political situation in 1957–58, it became politically incorrect to share interests with state-owned enterprises and workers. The 1958 reform consisted of decentralizing power to ... More


Long Run Growth:: Objectives and Received Theory

Dipankar Dasgupta

in Modern Growth Theory

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198069966
eISBN:
9780199080458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198069966.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

An increase in the annual growth rate of a country’s real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) is, to a large extent, an indication of improvement in the standard of living. Most nations which are ... More


“Whither China?” in a New Context

Wu Jinglian, Ma Guochuan, Xiaofeng Hua, and Nancy Hearst

in Whither China?: Restarting the Reform Agenda

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780190223151
eISBN:
9780190223182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190223151.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

The Chinese economy has experienced continuous growth due to the dynamism released by the economic reform and opening. Meanwhile, the dominant role of government- and state-owned economic entities ... More


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